Soc 101 Final Exam
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A system where society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy.
Ex: in the US we have upper, middle, and lower classes, depending on education and inheritance.
Social stratification based on birth, it is very difficult or impossible to move from one system to another.
Indian Caste System
4 Major Castes, abolished in 1949 by Ghandi.
Determining factors of caste
- If you're born into one
- If you marry into one
What responsibilities you have to your caste:
Indian Caste: Brahman
Priests of scholars. There are different variations
Indian Caste: Kshatriya
Nobles or Warriors
Indian Caste: Vaishva
Merchants or skilled artisans
Indian Castes: Shudra
Indian Caste: The Dalit
- The outcasts, or "the untouchables"
- They do jobs nobody else will do.
Ex: toilet cleaning, street sweeping.
If touched, rituals are done to be cleansed.
U.S. Disparity of Income (Family income)
- The richest 20% in the US = 47% of all income
- The poorest = 3.8% of all income
What is the breakdown of wealth in the US
- All of the wealth belongs to 85% of the rich people.
- The poorest have -1% of the wealth. They are in debt.
The class system: Upper class
- - Makes at least 200,000 a year
- -5% of population
- Mostly inherited
The class system: Middle class
- Between 48,000 and 200,000 a year.
- 40-45% of the population
- Divided into two sections:
- Upper middle: education driven (doctors, lawyers)
Average middle (small business owners)
The class system: working class
- Between 27,000 and 48,000
- 33% of the population
- Manual jobs, 1/3 of kids go to college
The class system: lower class
- Earn below 27,000
- 20% of the population
- African americans, hispanics, single moms with dependent children.
- Seasonal jobs
Ranking people in a hierarchy by high, medium, low between two countries.
Wealth disparity between countries (numbers)
- Richest 20% owns 84% of wealth
- Poorest owns .4%
Disparity between nations (numbers)
The richest 20% of the nations owns 77% of the world's income
The poorest 20% of nations owns 2% of the world's income
Low income nations (Stats + Example)
- 53 Nations
- 2,500 Per capita income
- No medical care, roads, high popultion growth
- African countries, Middle East
High Income Nations (Stats + Example)
- 72 Nations
- 12,000 per capita
- Advanced technology, healthcare,
Includes USA, Australia, Europe
Middle Income Nations (Example + Stats)
- 70 Nations
- 2500-12000 GDP per cap
- Some industrialization, technology, poor transportation
Poverty compared to other people in other countries
Life threatening poverty
(U.S. Theory) The more technology a country has, the richer it is.
This belief includes traditional cultures, in the US, we believe culture holds you back.
Richer countries exploit poor countries, making poor countries dependent on them. This has been going on since colonialism.
When one country rules another.
Difference between the sexes
Anthropologist who figured out whether or not masculinity or femininity is based on culture or genes, she looked at three cultures.
Margaret Mead: Arapesh Tribe
Peaceful mountain dwellers. Both M/F acted feminine, peaceful and calm.
Margaret Mead: Mundugumor
Both male and female acted masculine, fierce and warlike, not taking care of their children and engaging in cannibalism.
Margaret Mead: Tchambuli
Traditional gender roles reversed. Males focused their time on artistic activities while women fished and hunted.
Margaret Mead: Results
Gave proof to culture being an influence to masculinity or femininity.
What percentage of women work? In 1900 and in 2009
- in 1900 - 20%
- 2009 - 60, 67% work full time
Housework percentage breakdown
- On avg. women do 16 hours a week
- Men do 9 hours a week.
What is the glass ceiling
Women can only work up to a certain position and can only see the position above it, often due to motherhood.
How many major corporations are headed by women?
Only 17 out of the 1000 largest in the US
Physical phenotype differences. White/Asian/Black
You can only be one ethnicity, but several different races. T/F
Unfair treatment towards others
Ex:culture, income, age
Prejudice based on race
Native American History (Lots of tribes, not a single people)
- Genocide with smallpox and other diseases
- Then pushed them to the west
- After that we made them live on reserves
Avg. Native American Income compared to entire US
$39,664 to $60,395
African American History
- Africans came as slaves
- In 1857 Dread Scott decision asked whether or not blacks were citizens. Answer= no.
- Blacks not covered by constitution = Civil war 1861-1865
- 13th amendment outlawed slavery
- 1868 dread scott overruled
- 1870 Af. Americans allowed to vote
- Still segregation
- Gave up her seat on the bus
- Got arrested
- Bus Boycott
- Civil rights problem
- = Civil rights act
African American income compared to entire US
$38,500 to $60,395
Asian American History
- Mostly Chinese/Japanese
- Came for gold rush+ rail roads
- U.S. Stopped people from coming over, so the Asian men were without their wives
- Had to pay miners fees
- Couldn't testify against whites
Asian American income compared to U.S. pop
75,486 to 60,395
Asians are higher because education is valued more.
Hispanic American History
- Mexico, Spain, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic
- Came for family, money
Hispanic income to US pop
39,538 to 60,395
When a person gives up their culture to be a part of another culture. They pick up the values of the dominant group.
Such as: clothes, names, music
The physical separation of groups. The majority imposes segregation.
Ex: african americans, asians, natives
When both groups respect each other, but still retain own culture.
Ex: the Amish, little italy, china town
The systematic killing of a group of people
Ex: hitler, serial killers
Singled out for unequal treatment
Properties of minorities
- 1. Unequal treatment (Ex. The US citizens in sosuth africa)
- 2. Physical or Cultural Traits (Different phenotypes)
- 3. Ascribed Statuses (Diff both statuses)
- 4. Group solidarity (in-group sense) U.S. vs. them
- 5. Marry within the group. (dominant group won't marry minority)
A social system through which goods and services are produced, distributed and consumed
Capitalism definition and
Three essential features of capitalism
- 1. The means of production in private hands, not owned by government.
- 2. Profit
- 3. Exchange of goods between buyer and seller
Laissez-faire (hands off)
To leave alone. People produce freely with no government intervention.
U.S. Is not this due to regulations
Our system! A market based economy regulated by federal, state and local laws, based on hygeine, hazardous waste, discrimination and social security.
Companies cooperate with the government but are privately owned. Example: Japan, russia, british airways
Companies: post office
- 1. Everyone owns everything through taxes. The government runs it
- 2. Central government makes economic decisions
- 3. Distrubition is based on need, not wealth.
The social institution that distributes power, sets a societies agendaa, and makes decisions
One ruler. A king or a queen. Rule is passed to kids.
28 nations have monarchies, some have absolute monarchies, without parliament help.
Or "power to the people" means citizens vote for people to represent them.
A political system that denies participation in government.
People don't get say.
Highly centralized political system that extensively regulates lives. Controlling government!
Ex: N. Korea
One man, one woman.
One wife, more than one husband
One man, more than one wife
Patterns of descent: Patrilineal
Kinship traced through father's relatives. Father's side is more important than mom's
Patterns of descent: Matrilineral
Kinship traced through mother's side. Mom's side is more important.
Patterns of descent
The way people trace kinship over generations, or who they think they were related to
Theoretical analysis of family: functionalist perspective
- Family serves a purpose
- 1. Reproduce
- 2. Protect
- 3. Socialize
- 4. Regulate sexual behavior
- 5. Affection
- 6. Social status
Theoretical analysis of family: conflict perspective
Family gives you property and attributes to disparity
Family contributes to patriarchy. If we had less marriages, there would be less of a conflict between men and women in society.
Social stratification based on birth and individual achievements
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