Soc 101 Final Exam

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  1. Social Stratification
    A system where society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy.

    Ex: in the US we have upper, middle, and lower classes, depending on education and inheritance.
  2. Caste System
    Social stratification based on birth, it is very difficult or impossible to move from one system to another.
  3. Indian Caste System
    4 Major Castes, abolished in 1949 by Ghandi.
  4. Determining factors of caste
    • If you're born into one
    • If you marry into one
  5. What responsibilities you have to your caste:
    • The work
    • The religion
  6. Indian Caste: Brahman
    Priests of scholars. There are different variations
  7. Indian Caste: Kshatriya
    Nobles or Warriors
  8. Indian Caste: Vaishva
    Merchants or skilled artisans
  9. Indian Castes: Shudra
    Common Laborers
  10. Indian Caste: The Dalit
    • The outcasts, or "the untouchables"
    • They do jobs nobody else will do.

    Ex: toilet cleaning, street sweeping.

    If touched, rituals are done to be cleansed.
  11. U.S. Disparity of Income (Family income)
    • The richest 20% in the US = 47% of all income
    • The poorest = 3.8% of all income
  12. What is the breakdown of wealth in the US
    • All of the wealth belongs to 85% of the rich people.
    • The poorest have -1% of the wealth. They are in debt.
  13. The class system: Upper class
    • - Makes at least 200,000 a year
    • -5% of population
    • Mostly inherited
  14. The class system: Middle class
    • Between 48,000 and 200,000 a year.
    • 40-45% of the population

    • Divided into two sections:
    • Upper middle: education driven (doctors, lawyers)

    Average middle (small business owners)
  15. The class system: working class
    • Between 27,000 and 48,000
    • 33% of the population
    • Manual jobs, 1/3 of kids go to college
  16. The class system: lower class
    • Earn below 27,000
    • 20% of the population
    • African americans, hispanics, single moms with dependent children.
    • Seasonal jobs
  17. Global Stratification
    Ranking people in a hierarchy by high, medium, low between two countries.
  18. Wealth disparity between countries (numbers)
    • Richest 20% owns 84% of wealth
    • Poorest owns .4%
  19. Disparity between nations (numbers)
    The richest 20% of the nations owns 77% of the world's income

    The poorest 20% of nations owns 2% of the world's income
  20. Low income nations (Stats + Example)
    • 53 Nations
    • 2,500 Per capita income
    • No medical care, roads, high popultion growth
    • African countries, Middle East
  21. High Income Nations (Stats + Example)
    • 72 Nations
    • 12,000 per capita
    • Advanced technology, healthcare,

    Includes USA, Australia, Europe
  22. Middle Income Nations (Example + Stats)
    • 70 Nations
    • 2500-12000 GDP per cap
    • Some industrialization, technology, poor transportation

    Asia, India
  23. Relative Poverty
    Poverty compared to other people in other countries
  24. Absolute poverty
    Life threatening poverty
  25. Modernization Theory
    (U.S. Theory) The more technology a country has, the richer it is.

    This belief includes traditional cultures, in the US, we believe culture holds you back.
  26. Dependency Theory
    Richer countries exploit poor countries, making poor countries dependent on them. This has been going on since colonialism.

    Example: Factories
  27. Colonialism
    When one country rules another.
  28. Gender Stratification
    Difference between the sexes
  29. Margaret Mead
    Anthropologist who figured out whether or not masculinity or femininity is based on culture or genes, she looked at three cultures.
  30. Margaret Mead: Arapesh Tribe
    Peaceful mountain dwellers. Both M/F acted feminine, peaceful and calm.
  31. Margaret Mead: Mundugumor
    Both male and female acted masculine, fierce and warlike, not taking care of their children and engaging in cannibalism.
  32. Margaret Mead: Tchambuli
    Traditional gender roles reversed. Males focused their time on artistic activities while women fished and hunted.
  33. Margaret Mead: Results
    Gave proof to culture being an influence to masculinity or femininity.
  34. What percentage of women work? In 1900 and in 2009
    • in 1900 - 20%
    • 2009 - 60, 67% work full time
  35. Housework percentage breakdown
    • On avg. women do 16 hours a week
    • Men do 9 hours a week.
  36. What is the glass ceiling
    Women can only work up to a certain position and can only see the position above it, often due to motherhood.
  37. How many major corporations are headed by women?
    Only 17 out of the 1000 largest in the US
  38. Race
    Physical phenotype differences. White/Asian/Black
  39. Ethnicity
    Cultural Traits

    Ex: Jewish
  40. You can only be one ethnicity, but several different races. T/F
  41. Prejudice
    Unfair treatment towards others

    Ex:culture, income, age
  42. Racism
    Prejudice based on race
  43. Native American History (Lots of tribes, not a single people)
    • Genocide with smallpox and other diseases
    • Then pushed them to the west
    • After that we made them live on reserves
  44. Avg. Native American Income compared to entire US
    $39,664 to $60,395
  45. African American History
    • Africans came as slaves
    • In 1857 Dread Scott decision asked whether or not blacks were citizens. Answer= no.
    • Blacks not covered by constitution = Civil war 1861-1865
    • 13th amendment outlawed slavery
    • 1868 dread scott overruled
    • 1870 Af. Americans allowed to vote
    • Still segregation
  46. Rosa Parks
    • Gave up her seat on the bus
    • Got arrested
    • Bus Boycott
    • Civil rights problem
    • = Civil rights act
  47. African American income compared to entire US
    $38,500 to $60,395
  48. Asian American History
    • Mostly Chinese/Japanese
    • Came for gold rush+ rail roads
    • U.S. Stopped people from coming over, so the Asian men were without their wives
    • Had to pay miners fees
    • Couldn't testify against whites
  49. Asian American income compared to U.S. pop
    75,486 to 60,395

    Asians are higher because education is valued more.
  50. Hispanic American History
    • Mexico, Spain, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic
    • Came for family, money
  51. Hispanic income to US pop
    39,538 to 60,395
  52. Assimilation
    When a person gives up their culture to be a part of another culture.  They pick up the values of the dominant group.

    Such as: clothes, names, music
  53. Segregation
    The physical separation of groups. The majority imposes segregation.

    Ex: african americans, asians, natives
  54. Pluralism
    When both groups respect each other, but still retain own culture.

    Ex: the Amish, little italy, china town
  55. Genocide
    The systematic killing of a group of people

    Ex: hitler, serial killers
  56. Minority group
    Singled out for unequal treatment
  57. Properties of minorities
    • 1. Unequal treatment (Ex. The US citizens in sosuth africa)
    • 2. Physical or Cultural Traits (Different phenotypes)
    • 3. Ascribed Statuses (Diff both statuses)
    • 4. Group solidarity (in-group sense) U.S. vs. them
    • 5. Marry within the group. (dominant group won't marry minority)
  58. Economics
    A social system through which goods and services are produced, distributed and consumed
  59. Capitalism definition and
    Three essential features of capitalism
    • 1. The means of production in private hands, not owned by government.
    • 2. Profit
    • 3. Exchange of goods between buyer and seller
  60. Laissez-faire (hands off)
    To leave alone.  People produce freely with no government intervention.


    U.S. Is not this due to regulations
  61. Welfare capitalism
    Our system! A market based economy regulated by federal, state and local laws, based on hygeine, hazardous waste, discrimination and social security.
  62. State capitalism
    Companies cooperate with the government but are privately owned. Example: Japan, russia, british airways

    Companies: post office
  63. Socialism Features
    • 1. Everyone owns everything through taxes. The government runs it
    • 2. Central government makes economic decisions
    • 3. Distrubition is based on need, not wealth.
  64. Politics
    The social institution that distributes power, sets a societies agendaa, and makes decisions
  65. Monarchy
    One ruler. A king or a queen. Rule is passed to kids.

    28 nations have monarchies, some have absolute monarchies, without parliament help.
  66. Democracy (Demos-Kratos)
    Or "power to the people" means citizens vote for people to represent them.
  67. Authoritarianism
    A political system that denies participation in government.

    People don't get say.
  68. Totalitarianism
    Highly centralized political system that extensively regulates lives. Controlling government!

    Ex: N. Korea
  69. Monogamy
    One man, one woman.
  70. Polygamy
    Several wives/husbands
  71. Polyandry
    One wife, more than one husband
  72. Polygyny
    One man, more than one wife
  73. Patterns of descent: Patrilineal
    Kinship traced through father's relatives. Father's side is more important than mom's
  74. Patterns of descent: Matrilineral
    Kinship traced through mother's side. Mom's side is more important.
  75. Patterns of descent
    The way people trace kinship over generations, or who they think they were related to
  76. Theoretical analysis of family: functionalist perspective
    • Family serves a purpose
    • 1. Reproduce
    • 2. Protect
    • 3. Socialize
    • 4. Regulate sexual behavior
    • 5. Affection
    • 6. Social status
  77. Theoretical analysis of family: conflict perspective
    Family gives you property and attributes to disparity

    Family contributes to patriarchy. If we had less marriages, there would be less of a conflict between men and women in society.
  78. Class system
    Social stratification based on birth and individual achievements
Card Set:
Soc 101 Final Exam
2014-05-13 00:44:05
Social Stratification Economics Politics Colonialism

Sociology 191
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