CLEP sociology pt I sec1-4
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What is sociology?
Study of societies, social groups, and the relationships between people.
What is the humanistic perspective of sociology?
To advance the welfare of humankind
What is the scientific perspective of sociology?
It is only concerned with acquiring objective empirical knowledge and not concerned about how to put it to use
According to C Wright Mills, what expresses both an understanding that personal troubles can and often do reflect broader social issues AND faith in the capacity of human beings to alter the course of history?
the sociological imagination
Who coined the word sociology?
What are the 3 stages of development that every science must go through?
Theological, metaphysical, positive stages
What is the theological stage of a developing science?
Looking toward the supernatural to explain what's observed.
What is the metaphysical stage of a developing science?
When scientist begin looking at the real world for an explanation.
What entails the final stage of the development of a science? The positive stage.
Scientist search for general ideas and laws.
What is Talcott Parson's Grand Theory?
society is a stable system of interrelated parts. (Functionalism)
What sociologist (1910-2003) distinguished between manifest (intended) and latent (unintended) consequences of existing elements of social structure which are either functional of dysfunctional to the systems stability?
What is deductive theory?
Theory that proceeds from general ideas.
What is inductive theory?
Theory derived from concrete evidence
What are the 3 recent theoretical approaches to sociology?
Interpretative, conflict, structural functionalism
What 3 perspectives does the interpretative theory encompass?
- 1. Symbolic interaction
- 2. Dramaturgy
- 3. Ethnomethodology
Who established the interpretative theory?
Mead and Blumer
What is interpretative theory?
The study of process whereby humans attach meaning to their lives
What is symbolic interaction?
Humans shape their actions based on real and anticipated responses of others. Allows for the belief that humans can shape their world and also be shaped by social interaction
Who established the dramaturgy theory and what is it?
- Ervin Goffing. We are actors playing roles and engaging in impression management. We seek to
- 1. Manipulate our audience
- 2. protect of hide our true selves
- 3. amplify the rules of conduct
What is conflict theory?
Questioning how factors such as race, sex, social class, etc. are associated with the unequal distribution of socially valued goods like education, money, etc.
Who's work is most associated with the conflict theory?
Coser, Darhendorf, and Mills
Who looked at the conflict theory exclusively as a conflict of classes?
What to sociologist are best known for Functionalism?
Emile Durkheim and Herbert Spencer
What is Structural Functionalism?
Society is a system of interrelated parts where each part contributes and all are interdependent.
What research method makes use of statistics and other mathematical techniques?
What research methods rely on personal observations and description of social life in order to explain behavior?
Who developed the verstehen research method?
What is the verstehen research method?
Understanding as a means of characterizing and interpreting or explaining through applying reason to external and internal context to social situations
What is the most often used research method by sociologist and what does it involve?
Survey method. Subjects are asked their opinions
In the survey research method what of a correlation of variables?
A change in one variable coincides with (but doesn't cause) a change in another variable.
In the survey research method a casual relationship between variables is what?
When a change in one variable forces a change in another.
What is secondary analysis?
analyzing existing sources of information in hopes of finding something new.
What are the 5 stages of research?
- 1. Define the problem
- 2. Identify and review literature
- 3. Form a hypothesis
- 4. Select and implement a research design
- 5. Draw a conclusion
According to Freud, what represents the unconscious striving without specific direction or purpose?
According to Freud, what represents the most conscious aspect of personality and checks the id?
According to Freud, what holds all the morals etc. from our parents and allows us to make judgements?
What is and who established the looking-glass-self?
- Charles Horton Cooley(1864-1921). Looking-glass-self refers to self-formation and involves 3 stages
- 1. We imagine how we appear to others
- 2. Wonder if others see us how we see us
- 3. Develop a conception of ourselves based on the judgements of others
Who theorized the "self concept" or that we reevaluate ourselves every time we enter a new social situation?
Charles Horton Cooley
What social psychologist is best known for his evolutionary social theory?
George Herbert Meade (1863-1931)
Who coined the term Role-distance, meaning the gap between who we are and who we portray ourselves to be?
Erving Goffman (1922-1983)
Who proposed a theory of cognitive development that stated changes in the way children think is not automatic and comes as a result of real life experiences that foster development?
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
What is the sensorimotor stage?
Infants are unaware that their actions produce results
What is the preoperational stage?
Begin to use language and symbols. Start separating reality from fantasy
What is the formal operational stage?
Child develops the capacity of thinking in highly abstract terms of metaphors and hypothesis which may or may not be based on reality
Who developed an 8-stage process of development of one's self?
Who, inspired by Piaget's work, concluded that there is six stages of moral reasoning from childhood to adulthood?
Who disagreed with Kohlberg stating that women approach moral reasoning from a different standpoint than men?
What are rules or expectations that govern peoples behaviors? A violation of these rules results in some form of punishment.
What are the ideas or central beliefs of a group that include what's good, right, and desirable?
What are the usual customs and conventions of everyday life? People are expected to conform to these standards but are not necessarily compelled to do so by others.
What are norms that, if violated, it is considered to be regarded as a serious matter worthy of anger, strong criticism, punishment, or institutionalization?
What are basic elements essential to individual and collective survival and are found in all cultures?
What connotes the variety of things humans have devised to meet their needs?
What refers to social scientists efforts to be objective while studying other cultures?
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