A&P Orientation Directional Terms Regional Terms.txt

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conniesue38
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274152
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A&P Orientation Directional Terms Regional Terms.txt
Updated:
2014-05-12 12:41:32
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reg direc
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orientation, directional, regional
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  1. Above; toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body.
    Superior (cranial)
  2. Below; away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body.
    Inferior (caudal)
  3. In front of; toward or at the front of the body.
    Ventral (anterior)
  4. Behind; toward or at the back of the body.
    Dorsal (posterior)
  5. On the inner side of; toward or at the mid-line of the body.
    Medial
  6. On the outer side of; away from the mid-line of the body.
    Lateral
  7. Paired structures, one on each side.
    Bilateral
  8. Structures on the same side.
    Ipsilateral
  9. Structures on the opposites side.
    Contralateral
  10. Between a more medial and a more lateral structure.
    Intermediate
  11. Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
    Proximal
  12. Farther from the origin of a body part of the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
    Distal
  13. Toward or at the body surface.
    Superficial (external)
  14. Away from the body surface, more internal.
    Deep (internal)
  15. Head
    Cephalic
  16. Forehead
    Frontal
  17. Eyes & sockets
    Orbital
  18. Nose
    Nasal
  19. Mouth
    Oral
  20. Neck
    Cervical
  21. Chest
    Thoracic
  22. Center front of chest, over the sternum.
    Sternal
  23. Sides of chest, in area of arm pits.
    Axillary
  24. Chest area from collarbone down to diaphragm, minus axillary & sternal areas.
    Mammary
  25. Abdomen from diaphragm to waist.
    Abdominal
  26. Belly button
    Umbilical
  27. Area just below the waist.
    Pelvic
  28. Area just below the pelvic area, not including genitalia.
    Inguinal (groin)
  29. Front genitalia area.
    Pubic (genital)
  30. Shoulder
    Acromial
  31. Upper arm
    Brachial
  32. Inner elbow
    Antecubital
  33. Elbow
    Olecranal
  34. Forearm
    Antebrachial
  35. Wrist
    Carpal
  36. Back of hand
    Metacarpal
  37. Palm of hand
    Palmar
  38. Fingers and toes
    Digital
  39. Hips (sides)
    Coxal
  40. Thigh
    Femoral
  41. Knee
    Patellar
  42. Foot
    Pedal
  43. Bottom of foot.
    Plantar
  44. Back of head.
    Occipital
  45. Back
    Dorsal
  46. Shoulder blade
    Scapular
  47. Spinal area
    Vertebral
  48. Lower area lateral to the vertebral area.
    Lumbar
  49. Area below vertebral area, between gluts.
    Sacral
  50. Buttocks
    Gluteal
  51. Area between anus and external genitalia.
    Perineal
  52. Vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior.
    Frontal or coronal plane
  53. Vertical plane that divides the bodinto right and left.
    • Sagittal plane
    • midsagittal = equal right & left halves
    • parasagittal = unequal division
  54. Plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
    Transverse or horizontal plane
  55. Organ system that forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury.  Synthesizes vitamin D and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands.
    Integumentary system.  Made up of hair, skin and nails.
  56. Organ system that protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement.  Stores minerals and forms blood cells.
    Skeletal system.  Made up of bones and joints.
  57. Organ system that allows manipulations of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression.  Maintains posture and produces heat.
    Muscular system.  Made up of muscles.
  58. Organ system that is the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands.
    Nervous system.  Made up of brain, spinal cord and nerves.
  59. Organ system in charge of secreting hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.
    Endocrine system.  Pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries and testes.
  60. Organ system that transports blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc.
    Cardiovascular system.  Made up of heart and blood vessels.
  61. Organ system that picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood.  Houses white blood cells involved in immunity.  Immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances with the body and disposes of debris.
    Lymphatic system/Immunity.  Made up of red bone marrow, thymus, lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct, spleen and lymph nodes.
  62. Organ system that keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.  The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
    Respiratory system.  Made up of nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs and bronchus.
  63. Organ system that breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells.  Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
    Digestive system.  Made up of oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, liver, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus.
  64. Organ system that eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body.  Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
    Urinary system.  Made up of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra.
  65. Organ system that produces offspring by producing sperm, ova, and sex hormones among other things.
    Reproductive system.  Made up of Prostate gland, penis, testes, ductus deferens and scrotum in males and the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina and mammary glands in females.
  66. 6 levels of structural organization in order of smallest to largest:
    • Chemical - atoms combine to form molecules
    • Cellular - made up of molecules
    • Tissue - consist of similar types of cells
    • Organ - made up of different types of tissues
    • Organ system - made up of organs working closely together
    • Organism - made up of many organ systems
  67. The 8 Necessary Life Functions, what an organism needs internally to survive:
    • Maintaining boundaries
    • Movement
    • Responsiveness (or irritability)
    • Digestion
    • Metabolism
    • Excretion
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
  68. Necessary Life Function that ensures that the internal environment remains distinct from the external environment.
    Maintaining boundaries
  69. Necessary Life Function that includes the activities promoted by the muscular system.
    Movement
  70. Necessary Life Function that gives us the ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then react to them.
    Responsiveness or irritability
  71. Necessary Life Function that involves the breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.
    Digestion
  72. Necessary Life Function that includes all chemical reactions that occur within body cells.
    Metabolism
  73. Necessary Life Function that removes wastes, or excreta, from the body.
    Excretion
  74. Necessary Life Function that occurs at the cellular and organismal levels for the propagation of the species.
    Reproduction
  75. Necessary Life Function that increases the size of a body part or organism.
    Growth
  76. The 5 Survival Needs, what organisms need externally to survive:
    • Nutrients
    • Oxygen
    • Water
    • Normal body temperature
    • Appropriate atmospheric pressure
  77. Posterior body cavity containing:
    -Cranial cavity (inside the skull, encases the brain)
    -Vertebral cavity (inside the vertebral column, encases the spinal cord)
    Dorsal body cavity
  78. Anterior body cavity containing:
    -Pleural cavities (lungs)
    -Pericardial cavity within the mediastinum (heart)
    Thoracic cavity
  79. Anterior body cavity containing:
    -Abdominal cavity (digestive viscera)
    -Pelvic cavity (urinary bladder, reproductive organs, rectum)
    Abdominopelvic cavity
  80. Anterior body cavity containing both the Thoracic and Abdominopelvic cavities
    Ventral body cavity
  81. Small body cavity containing the teeth and tongue, part of and continuous with the cavity of the digestive organs.
    Oral and digestive cavities
  82. Small cavity located within and posterior to the nose, part of the respiratory system passageways.
    Nasal cavity
  83. Small cavities in the skull that house the eyes.
    Orbital cavity
  84. Small cavities in the skull that lie just medial to the eardrums.
    Middle ear cavities
  85. Thin, double-layered membrane lining the ventral body cavity.
    Serosa or serous membrane
  86. Serous membrane lining the walls of the cavity walls.
    Parietal serosa
  87. Serous membrane lining the exterior of the organs inside the ventral cavity.
    Visceral serosa
  88. Lubricating fluid between the two layers of serous membrane.
    Serous fluid
  89. Centermost (of 9) region, deep to and surrounding the belly button, contains the small intestine and transverse colon of large intestine.
    Umbilical region
  90. Region (of 9) directly superior to the umbilical region, contains most of the stomach and about half of the liver.
    Epigastric region
  91. Region (of 9) located directly inferior to the umbilical region, containing part of the intestines and the urinary bladder.
    Hypogastric region
  92. Region (of 9) located to the left of the hypogastric region, containing the initial part of the sigmoid colon.
    Left iliac (inguinal) region

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