psychology ch 12 study guide
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list the two major types used to explain actions:
Attribution: an inference about the cause of a person's behavior...
when something happens you will relate it to either situational vs dispositional to explain why it happens
list the two major types of attributions used to explain peoples actions
Situational: when we decide that a person's behavior was caused by some temporary aspect of the situation in which it happened
- ...external factors. i got in a car crash, because i had light in my eyes, and traffic
- Dispositional: when we decide that a person's behavior was caused by his or her relatively enduring tendency to think, feel, or act in a particular way...
your character, who you are. they got into a car crash because they were distracted and not paying attention
Fundamental attribution error:
ALA the actor observer bias:
- Fundamental Attribution error: also referred to as Correspondence biasThe tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person's behavior was caused by the situation...
- Actor-observer effect: The tendency to make situational attriutions for our own behaviors while making dispostitional attributions for the identical behavior of others...
- when it is you, you will overestimate the situational factors and underestimate the dispositional factors, when it is others, you will overestimate the dispositional factors and underestimate the situational factors
- Stereotyping: is the process by which we draw inferences about others based on knowledge of the categories to which they belong.
- taking one assumption about a group and applying it to all people. EX: saying all Jewish people are good with money is an example of a positive stereotype, as not all Jewish people are good with money.
a attitude or belief not based on fact; irrational preconceived opinion. can be negative or positive.
an action or behavior based on prejudice
Four ways that stereotypes are harmful
- Stereotyping - a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing
- prejudice - preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience.
- discrimination - acting on prejudice or stereotyping
- 1) inaccurate - often not true
- 2) overused - perverse, used in movies and media
- 3) automatic - done without thinking about it
- 4) self perpetuating - self fulfilling prophecy
- is the experience of anxiety in a situation in which a person has the potential to confirm a negative stereotype about his or her social group.
- has been shown to reduce the performance of individuals who belong to negatively stereotyped groups
- example: stereotype threat can lower the intellectual performance of African-Americans taking the SAT reasoning test used for college entrance in the United States, due to the stereotype that African-Americans are less intelligent than other groups
a group-held belief about how members should behave in a given context
how is the Norm of reciprocity related to the door-in-the-face technique
Norm of reciprocity: the unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them
- Door in the face technique: a technique that involves a large request followed by a smaller request.
- because someone gives you something for free, you wont close the door in their face
- Both involve making a swap or concession. because the "salesman" makes a concession, the norm of reciprocity demands that the "homeowner" make one too
what is the difference?
- Conformity: the tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it.
- very subtle, social scorn and shame.
- you look at others and imitate them to avoid being uncomfortable, or because you are unsure of yourself.
- Obedience: the tendency to do what powerful people, experts, or authority figures tell us to do.
- direct order is followed
Asch conformity study:
- subjects compared lines along with actors. the participants began to change their answers to conform with the wrong answers that the actors were giving. They did this because it was uncomfortable or they were unsure they were right.
- however when one other actor gave the right actor, the participate would also give the right answer, because it made it easier to go against the group
describe the difference:
- Normative influence: occurs when another person's behavior provides information about what is appropriate...looking to others to get information that is long lasting
- example: although no one ever taught you rules of an elevator, you pick up that you are supposed to face forward, you shouldn't talk to the person next to you, etc.
- information influence: occurs when another person's behavior provides information about what is good or right.
- look to others to get information in a specific situation.
- example: if everyone is in a shopping mall suddenly ran screaming for the exit, you'd probably join them. because their behavior would suggest to you that there was something worth running form.
Milgram's obedience study
have participants shock fake subjects, to see how far they will go when given subject.
65% of participants went all the way
Major factors that influence the behavior/compliance
- Lack of responsibility
- removed from the situation
- authority figure present
Diffusion of responsibility
- Deindividuation: when people check out of being an individual and become part of a group. we become less concerned with our own personal values, and more concerned with adopting the groups values.
- ex: being part of a riot, gang-rape, or being part of a party.
- Diffusion of responsibility: individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way...
- when someone ignores a problem because they think someone else will help.
ex: if a car is broken down on the side of the road, you are more likely to help that car and person out if you are on a secluded street than if you are on the free way.
why is frustration-aggression a limited view of the causes of aggression
- frustration-aggression: a principle stating that animals aggress only when their goals are frustrated or thwarted...
- when someone is frustrated it leads to aggression.
it is a simplistic view that fails to consider biology (males vs female), negative feelings (such as being hot), and cultural aggression (some places are more aggressive than others)
Gender and aggression
men have more testosterone which leads to more physically aggressive, because testosterone promotes aggression by making people feel concerned with their status, powerful, and confident in their ability to prevail.
situational factors that have been shown to influence attraction
- 1) situational factors: Proximity.
- 2) Physical factors: facial symmetry, averageness, Height, weight, facial, beauty
- 3) psychological factors: personality, points of views, similarities, intelligence, sense of humor, sensitivity and ambition
why similarity might influence attraction
1) Agreeableness - its easy to interact with people who are similar to us.
2) Confidence - when someone shares our attitudes and beliefs, we feel a bit more confident that those attitudes and beliefs are correct
- individuals do not offer any means of help to a victim when other people are present.
- but offer help when there are no other people present.
In other words, the greater the number of bystanders, the less likely it is that any one of them will help.
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