CLEP sociology pt I sec5-9

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craigm427
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274163
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CLEP sociology pt I sec5-9
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2014-05-15 15:16:18
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CLEP sociology pt sec5
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Sociology CLEP
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CLEP sociology pt I sec5-
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  1. What refers to the tendency of society (like other living organisms) to become more complex overtime?
    Sociocultural evolution
  2. What are the 5 types of societies?
    • 1. Hunting & gathering
    • 2. Horticultural & pastoral
    • 3. Agricultural
    • 4. Industrial
    • 5. Post-industrial
  3. What type of society is characterized by domesticating animals and the use of hand tools to cultivate plants?
    Horticultural and Pastoral
  4. What type of society used an increased use of technology to support crops and livestock including irrigation and draft animals?
    Agricultural
  5. What type of society uses complex machinery and energy sources for production?
    Industrial
  6. What type of society centers around the production and use of information?
    post-industrial
  7. A status that is automatically conferred onto a person being no choice of theirs: race, gender, etc
    Ascribed
  8. A status that is earned by one's own doings and efforts.
    Achieved
  9. A status with which a person is most identified by.
    Master
  10. All the statuses a person occupies is what?
    Status set
  11. What a person does by occupying a particular status or position.
    Role
  12. When different or conflicting expectations exist with regard to a particular status.
    Role Strain
  13. What occurs when a person occupies multiple statuses that contradict each other?
    Role conflict
  14. What is a relationship formed on the basis of accommodation or on the basis of an agreement?
    Association
  15. A relationship that is formed on the basis that the parties belong together.
    Communal relationship
  16. What is a number of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time?
    Aggregate
  17. What is a number of people that have certain characteristics in common?
    Social Category
  18. What is a collection of people interacting with one another?
    Social Group
  19. In what type of social group is the interaction among members close and intimate?
    Primary
  20. In what type of social group is the interaction among members anonymous, impersonal, and short in duration?
    Secondary
  21. According to Ferdinand Tonnies (1853-1936) what is gemeinschaft?
    Small communities characterized by tradition and united by a belief in common ancestry or by geographic proximity.
  22. According to Ferdinand Tonnies (1853-1936) what is a gesellschaft?
    Contractual relationships of a voluntary nature with limited duration and quality based on self interest and formed to achieve a particular goal
  23. According to George Simmel (1858-1918) what is a dyad?
    A group of two people
  24. According to George Simmel (1858-1918) what is a triad?
    A group of 3 people
  25. What technique, developed by Robert Bales, is used for classifying in predetermined ways activity in small groups?
    Interaction process analysis
  26. J. L. Moreno developed what technique that focused on establishing the direction of interaction in small groups?
    Sociometry
  27. What is a group called that a person feels they belong in?
    In-group
  28. A type of group that a person feels they oppose or don't belong.
    Out-group
  29. Social groups that provide the standards by which we evaluate ourselves.
    Reference groups
  30. What refers to an individual's compliance with group goals even if they may be in conflict with the individuals goals?
    Group conformity
  31. What is known as the process where people in a group tend to think similarly and conform to one another's views?
    Group think
  32. What are the 2 different type of group leaders?
    Instrumental and Expressive
  33. What are the 3 primary styles of leadership?
    Authoritarian, Democratic, Laissez-faire
  34. What is a social relationship that is either closed to outsiders or limits their admission into the group?
    Organization
  35. What states that in a bureaucratic organization that work expands to fill the time available for its completion?
    Parkinson's Law
  36. What states that in any hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence?
    Peter's Principle
  37. Who drafted the "Iron Law of Oligarchy" which concerns the behavior of bureaucracy?
    Robert Michels
  38. What is a mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from other members of society that consider themselves normal?
    Stigma
  39. Persuasion, teaching, and force are all examples of techniques for what?
    Social Control
  40. What is a primary deviance?
    Behavior that violates a norm
  41. What refers to the behavior that results from a response the social response of deviance?
    Secondary Deviance
  42. According to Merton, what kind of person seeks to continue acceptance of the goals and means offered for their attainment?
    Conformist
  43. According to Merton, what kind of person accepts the goals while seeking new and possibly illegitimate revenues to attain these goals?
    Innovator
  44. According to Merton, what kind of person makes the means into the end and would be more concerned with maintaining a job than personal achievement?
    Ritualist
  45. According to Merton, what kind of person rejects both the means and ends of society and dips into alcohol and drug use and metal illness?
    Retreat
  46. According to Merton, what kind of person rejects the means and ends and replaces both with alternatives?
    rebellious
  47. What is the symbolic meaning or value to actual or imagined bloodlines?
    Kinship
  48. What are the 2 types of families?
    • Orientation (born into)
    • Procreation (procreate or adopt as an adult)
  49. What terms refer to the family authority being vested in the mother/father?
    • Patriarchy (father)
    • Matriarchy (Mother)
  50. What terms refer to how the family lineage is traced?
    • Patrilineal (father)
    • Matrilineal (mother)
  51. What terms refer to marriage in a specific social group and marriage outside of a social group?
    • Endogamy (in group)
    • Exogamy (outside the group)
  52. Having one spouse at a time?
    Monogamy
  53. Having multiple spouses at one time?
    Polygamy
  54. Type of polygamy where a man has several wives at the same time?
    Polygyny
  55. Type of polygamy where a woman has multiple husbands at the same time?
    Polyandry
  56. What terms refer to the residential patterns of newly weds?
    • Patrilocality (Reside with husband's family)
    • Matrilocality (Reside with wife's family)
    • Neolocality (Reside in a separate residence of their own)
  57. What is levirate?
    obligates a man marry his brother's widow or be disgraced
  58. What is primogeniture?
    Eldest son inherits
  59. What is ultimogeniture?
    Youngest son inherits

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