psychology ch 13 study guide

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psychology ch 13 study guide
2014-05-17 07:18:01
psychology 13 study guide
psychology ch 13 study guide
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  1. Three conditions that psychologist use to define abnormal behavior?
    • 1) Disturbances in behavior, thoughts, or emotion
    • 2) impairment or personal distress from the symptoms
    • 3) internal dysfunction (biological, psychological or both) - symptoms stem from internal dysfunction
  2. DSM:
    • Diagnostic Statistical Manuel.
    • used to describe, diagnose, distinguish and treat psychological and mental illness.
  3. insanity:
    • a legal term pertaining to a defendant's ability to determine right from wrong when a crime is committed...
    • mental illness of such a severe nature that a person cannot distinguish fantasy from reality, cannot conduct her/his affairs due to psychosis, or is subject to uncontrollable impulsive behavior.
  4. how has the medical model of psychological disorders influenced our ideas of abnormal behavior?
    • because mental illness is thought of as having biological causes, defined symptoms, and possible cures,
    • viewing psychological disorders as medical problems reminds us that people who are suffering deserve care and treatment, not condemnation.
    • because they can be treated through drug and talk therapy, the stigma is removed.
    • people are no longer rounded up and put into a mental hospital
  5. Comorbidity:
    the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual. someone that has more than one mental illness commingled together, 

    can make difficult to diagnose because of the difference in symptoms
  6. Diathesis(predisposition)-stress model
    • a model suggesting that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress.
    • example: someone that has a predisposition, to depression or alcoholism, than a stressor occurs (such as divorce or death), and the disorder comes ...
    • depression or alcoholism are common, but can be many things
  7. Normal anxiety vs. Abnormal anxiety
    anxiety = a state of worrying and hyper-vigilance

    • normal - situation-related anxiety is normal and can be adaptive. anxiety that is in proportion to real threats and challenges...
    • Panic attack or other form of anxiety is short, intense periods of anxiety... - will come and go away on its own

    • Abnormal - Anxiety that is out of proportion to real threats and challenges. when it undermines the ability to function normally. Generalized anxiety - Long lasting anxiety last day, weeks- months and years - abnormal when it is constant, and impairs other parts of life
    • - Constant and chronic ... impairment and distress
  8. panic attack vs generalized anxiety
    • Panic attack = the sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror.
    • brief intense anxiety. chest tight, trouble breathing, heart rate increase.

    • Generalized = Chronic excessive worry accompanied by restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance ...
    • stable, more low level anxiety. constant
  9. Phobias
    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
    • Phobias: disorders characterized by marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations.
    • extreme/abnormal fear that is greater than a normal fear reaction. where being afraid of spiders is normal, but screaming murder for a spider is a phobia

    • OCD = repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual's functioning.
    • extreme obsession with doing certain ritualistic things to reduce anxiety otherwise bad things will occur.

    • PTSD = Post traumatic Stress disorder = a response to a traumatic or stressful event, someone may replay those events in their head and still experience those events again. may continue long after those events originally happened
    • very common with abuse, disasters, police, military
  10. Two types of mood disorders:
    Mood disorder: Mental disorders that have mood disturbance as their predominant feature.

    • 1)Major depressive disorder: a disorder characterized by a severly depressed mood that lasts two weeks or more and accompanied by feelings of worthlessness and lack of pleasure, lthargy, and sleep and appetite disturbances.
    • constant depression, ongoing for extended periods, that interferes with their life

    • 2)bipolar disorder: (manic-depressive) an unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression).
    • extreme ups and downs.
    • during depressive stages, very down and lethargic. loss of pleasure and enjoyment during manic stages- very up, erratic behavior, flight of idea, gambling, delusions of grandeur
  11. Major depressive vs seasonal affective
    Major Depressive disorder: is a constant ongoing depression, generally lasting 6 months.

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD): depression that involves recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern. occurs because of winter or fall... often due to lack of sun
  12. dissociative disorder: (multiple personality Disorder)
    • a condition in which normal cognitive processes are severely disjointed and fragmented, creating significant disruptions in memory, awareness, or personality that can vary in length from a matter of minutes to many years.
    • when someone loses their control of who they are temporarily. 
    • split personality, fugue state, amnesia.
  13. Attributional style
    • Attributional: 
    • Internal vs external = internalizing is blaming or attributing things to yourself, external is blaming or attributing to others or outside forces. 

    external can lead to depression, due to feeling of helplessness

    • Global vs specific: Global means that because of one instance or event, they believe that it applies to everything. 
    • specific means that they don't relate it to other instances. they aren't always looking for someone to screw them over

    • Stable vs unstable (time)
    • always going to happen vs only this one time
    • Personal. (Internal vs. External.) This involves how one explains where the cause of an event arises. People experiencing events may see themselves as the cause; that is, they have internalised the cause for the event. Example: "I always forget to make that turn" (internal) as opposed to "That turn can sure sneak up on you" (external).
    • Permanent. (Stable vs. Unstable.) This involves how one explains the extent of the cause. People may see the situation as unchangeable, e.g., "I always lose my keys" or "I never forget a face".
    • Pervasive. (Global vs. Local/Specific.) This involves how one explains the extent of the effects. People may see the situation as affecting all aspects of life, e.g., "I can't do anything right" or "Everything I touch seems to turn to gold".
  14. Helplessness theory:
    the idea that individuals who are prone to depressions automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal (i.e. their own fault), stable (i.e. unlikely to change), and global (widespread)
  15. Schizophrenia, and its most common symptoms.
    Schizophrenia: a disorder characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality; altered or blunted emotion; and disturbances in thought, motivation, and behavior.

    Symptoms can include: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized behavior or catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms.
  16. Hallucination:
    • Hallucination: a false perceptual experience that has a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation.
    • false sensory input. seeing, hearing, or smelling something that isn't there.

    often times they hear voices.
  17. Delusions:
    • Delusions: a patently false belief system, often bizarre and grandiose, that maintained in spite of its irrationality....
    • thinking things that aren't reality, not actually seeing it.
    • example: thinking that you are jesus christ

    Disorganized speech: erratic, inappropriate, out of context speech.

    disorganized behavior: erratic, inappropriate, out of context, behavior
  18. Disorganized speech (schizophrenia)
    a severe disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently from one to another unrelated topic.
  19. Grossly disorganized behavior (Schizophrenia)
    is behavior that is inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals, often with specific motor disturbances.
  20. negative symptoms (Schizophrenia)
    include emotional and social withdrawal' apathy' poverty of speech' and other indications of the absence or insufficiency of normal behavior, motivation, and emotion.
  21. dopamine hypothesis:
    • is the idea that schizophreneia involves an excess of dopamine activity.
    • a simplistic view to schizophrenia - a lack of dopamine causes schizophrenia
  22. personality disorder
    • personality disorder: disorders characterized by deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, relating to others, or controlling impulses that cause distress or impaired functioning. 
    • anytime that a persons traits or way of acting is out of context or inappropriate for a given situation and causes impairment or distress

    3 main types: 1) odd/eccentric (schizo, paranoid) 2) Dramatic/erratic (Antisocial, borderline, narcissistic) 3) Anxious/inhibited (ocd, co-dependent, avoidant)
  23. Antisocial personality disorder:
    • (may also know as sociopaths or psychopath) 
    • a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood.
    • There may be an impoverished moral sense or conscience. manipulative, lack of empathy.