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  1. define learning
    the acquisition of new information
  2. define memory
    the retention of learned information-the acquisition, storage, and retrieval of information
  3. know the types of memory
    • declarative (what)
    • non declarative (how)
    • Short term memory
    • working memory
    • long term memory
  4. define declarative memory (what)
    • memory for facts and events accessible to conscious recollection. Memory for things that one can recall and declare.
    • easily formed and forgotten
    • episodic--memory for past personally experienced events
    • semantic-memory for facts
  5. define non declarative (how)
    • procedural memory-skills and operations not stored regarding time and place
    • recalled without conscious recollection.
    • takes longer to form
  6. define short term memory
    • short term memory-temporary storage with limited capacity. involves multiple sites and continued rehearsal.
    • storage without distraction
  7. define working memory
    short term recall & temporary storage of information to complete a task. though of as working with memory.
  8. define long term memory
    memory that has been consolidated or stored so that it is available after distraction
  9. Define the memory model
    this is a linear model that considers memory as a process beginning with sensory registration and finally leading to the consolidation of some information into long term and or remote memories
  10. memory model sequence
    stimulus>sensory registration>attention>short term memory>consolidation>long term memory>remote memory
  11. what are the types of amnesia
    • retrograde
    • anterograde
    • transient global amnesia
  12. retrograde amnesia
    loss of memory from one point back in time
  13. Anterograde amnesia
    loss of memory from one point forward. called post traumatic amnesia (PTA) following traumatic brain injury
  14. transient global amnesia
    brief cerebral ischemia produces sudden loss of memory (minutes or days;retrograde)
  15. Patient H.M.
    • highlighted the important role that the hippocampus plays in the processes of learning and memory
    • 1953
    • HM suffered from intractable epilepsy and suffered from partial seizures for many years, then several tonic clonic seizures and convulsions following his 16th bday
    • localized epilepsy to his medial temporal lobe
  16. what was H.M's treatment
    his bilateral medial temporal lobe resection included a removal of the hippocampal formation and adjacent structures including most of the amygdaloid complex and entorhinal cortex
  17. what happened after H.M's surgery
    • high average intelligence
    • can converse normally
    • can perform mental math
    • no personality changes
  18. what were the results of H.M's surgery
    • had partial retrograde amnesia (10 yrs)
    • severe anterograde amnesia-impaired ability to store new memories
    • normal short term memory and remote memory
    • procedural memory was intact
  19. Define Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
    • up to 80% of alcoholics have a deficiency in thiamine
    • some of these people will go on to develop this syndrom
    • WKS is a disease that consists of 2 seperate syndromes, a short lived and severe condition called Wernicke's encephalopathy and a long lasting debilitating condition known as korsakoffs psychosis
  20. Wernicke's encephalopathy
    • mental confusion
    • paralysis of the nerves that move the eyes (oculomotor disturbances)
    • difficulty with muscle cordination
    • patients may not exhibit all three symptoms at the same time
  21. Karsakoff's Psychosis
    • approximately 80-90% of alcoholics with Wernicke's encephalopathy also develop Karsafoff's psychosis
    • a chronic and debilitating syndrome characterized by persistent learning and memory problems
    • although these patients have problems remembering old information (retrograde amnesia) it is their difficulty in laying down new information (anterograde amnesia) that is the most striking
  22. what are the brain structures associated with the pleasure reward pathway
    • prefrontal cortex
    • hippocampus
    • nucleus accumbens
    • amygdala
    • ventral tegmental area
  23. what is the dominant neurotransmitter of the reward pathway
  24. define agonist
    • An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response
    • facilitate
  25. define antagonist
    • blocks the action of the agonist
    • inhibits
  26. define affinity
    the drugs ability to bind to the receptor (lock and key)
  27. define efficacy
    the drugs tendency to activate the receptor
  28. how do drugs influence the synaptic activity
    • increase and decrease the synthesis of the neurotransmitter
    • increase its release
    • decrease its reuptake
    • block its breakdown into inactive chemicals
    • action on the post synaptic receptors
  29. what do stimulant drugs such as nicotine, cocaine and amphetamines do in the reward pathway
    • increase the presence of dopamine in the presynaptic terminal
    • they inhibit the dopamine transporter which reabsorbs released dopamine
    • inhibits reuptake
  30. what are the effects of opiates such as heroin, morphine and methadone on the reward pathway?
    • increase release of dopamine into corresponding brain arease
    • how:
    • inhibit the inhibitor GABA
    • leads to an increased firing of neurons in the ventral tegmental area
    • results in increased exposure to dopamine.
  31. what are the two possible ways that alcohol effects the reward pathways
    • inhibit the effects of GABA
    • increase the stimulation of the dopamine receptors in corresponding brain areas
  32. what is addiction based on
    • a persons reason for taking the drug
    • dosage
    • quickness of the effect
    • magnitude of effect
    • length of effect
  33. explain tolerance
    • the euphoric effects of a drug decreases
    • it takes a higher dose of the drug to achieve a high
    • several underlying mechanisms of tolerance, one being:
    • down regulation-decrease in receptors due to prolonged exposure to druge
    • receptor desensitization
  34. explain withdrawal
    psychology and physical symptoms that arise due to a drug cessation
  35. what causes Korsakoff's syndrome?
    • one of the main causes of alcoholism
    • thiamine (vitamine b1) depletion
    • poor nutrition
    • inflammation of the stomach lining
    • thiamine is essential for glucose metabolism (fuel for the brain)
  36. what are the symptoms of Korsakoff's syndome?
    • problems with learning new information
    • inability to remember recent events
    • long term memory gaps
    • patients may confabulate
  37. what is the main brain area that is targeted in Korsakoff's syndrome?
    • the mammilary bodies
    • they play a role in recognition memory (events, people objects)
    • neurodegeneration of the mammilary bodies
    • neurochemical signaling is disrupted, especially those responsible for storing and retrieving memories.
  38. what is the treatment of korsakoff's syndrome?
    • oral supplements of thiamine for approximately 3-12 months
    • giving up on alcohol
    • symptoms may improve
    • approx 25% of patients recover completely
Card Set
neuropsych final
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