Biology

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Author:
jmali921
ID:
274174
Filename:
Biology
Updated:
2014-05-12 16:20:16
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Biology MCAT
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MCAT prep
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MCAT prep
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  1. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?
    • Saturated: all single carbon-carbon bonds
    • Unsaturated: one or more double carbon-carbon bonds
  2. What are the functions of triacylglycerol?
    • Store energy
    • thermal insulation
    • padding (for organs etc.)
  3. What is the function of phospholipids?`
    they're a  structural component of cell membranes
  4. Vitamin D, hormones, cholesterol and vitamin A are all example of?
    steroids
  5. What is the function of steroids?
    regulate metabolic activités
  6. What is the function of fatty acids (eicosanoids)?
    serve as local hormones
  7. Lipids are insoluble in the blood, so how ae they transported?
    Lipoproteins: lipid core surrounded by phospholipids and apoproteins
  8. Name the 5 forces that create the tertiary structure in protein formation
    • 1. Covalent disulfide bonds between two cysteine amino acids on different parts of the chain
    • 2. Ionic interactions mostly between acidic and basic chains
    • 3. Hydrogen bonds
    • 4. Van Der Walls forces
    • 5. Hydrophobic side chaines pushed away by water
  9. animals can digest ________ linkages on starch and glycogen, but not ______ linkages in cellulose; however, _________ can digest _____ linkages in cellulose
    • alpha
    • beta
    • bacteria
    • beta
  10. Nucleotides are linked via ___________ bonds
    • phosphodiester 
    • (phosphate group + 3rd carbon of the other nucleotide)
    • linkage = 5' --> 3'
  11. Define "anomer"
    • a cyclic stereoisomer 
    • ex. α-glucose vs β-glucose
  12. enzymes are typically _________ proteins.
    Like any catalyst, they _______ to the equilibrium of a reaction.
    • globular proteins
    • do not alter
  13. Enzyme kinetics:
    Vmax is __________ to [enzyme]...
    Km is related to Vmax, where [substrate] causes a run rate of ____ Vmax
    • proportional
    • 1/2 Vmax
  14. What is the difference between a "cofactor" and a "coenzyme"?
    • Cofactor: non-protein component, minerals
    • Coenzyme: vitamins, ATP, vitamin derivatives
  15. Enzyme + cofactor = ________
    Enzyme w/o cofactor = _______
    haloenzyme

    apoenzyme
  16. 3 factors that affect enzyme activity
    • temperature
    • pH
    • substrate concentration
  17. 3 classes of enzyme inhibitors
    • competative inhibitors
    • non-competative inhibitors
    • irreversible inhibitors
  18. What is the classic method to identify competitive inhibition?
    increase substrate concentration to overcome inhibition
  19. ______ inhibitors raise Km, but not Vmax. 

    ______ inhibitors lower Vmax, but Km stays the same.
    • Competitive 
    • Non-competative
  20. Many enzymes are released into its environment in its inactive form called?
    zymogen or proenzyme
  21. Define negative feedback
    • when one enzyme in the early reaction is inhibited by the product downstream in the reaction series 
    • stops run when the series has produced sufficient amounts of product
  22. Define "positive feedback"
    • a product returns to activate an enzyme 
    • occurs less often than negative feedback
  23. the general function of a "kinase"
    enzyme that phosphorylates something
  24. the general function of a "phosphotase"
    enzyme that dephosphorylates something
  25. Where does glycolysis occur?
    In the cytosol with or w/o oxygen
  26. Name the products of glycolysis
    • 2 ATP
    • Inorganic phosphate and water
    • 2 Molecules of NADH from reduced NAD+
    • 1- dihydroxyacetone phosphate (3 carbon)
    • 1- glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (PGAL)
  27. In which step is glucose modified to assist in the facilitated diffusion mechanism to transport it into the cell?
    • The first step of glycolysis 
    • irreversible
    • hexokinase enzyme
  28. Aerobic respiration occurs where?
    Mitochondrial Matrix of the mitochondria
  29. Each turn of the Kreb's cycle produces?
    • 1 ATP
    • 3 NADH
    • 1 FADH2
  30. the process of ATP production in the Krebs cycle is called what?
    substrate level phosphorylation
  31. Including glycolysis, how many ATPs are produced from aerobic respiration?
    36 ATPs
  32. Define: "electron transport chain"
    a series of proteins, including cytochromes with heme, in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
  33. In the ETC, a proton gradient is formed called the __________ which drives ATP synthase to produce 34 ATP. 
    Production of ATP in this fashion is known as?
    proton-motive force

    Oxidative phosphorylation
  34. In a human renal cortical cell, the Krebs cycle occurs in the?
    mitochondrial matrix
  35. As electrons move within the ETC, each intermediate is _____ by the preceding molecule and _______ by the following molecule
    • reduced (preceding)
    • oxidized (following)
  36. in aerobic respiration, the energy from the oxidation of NADH does what?
    established a proton gradient (H+) between the intermembrane space and the mitochondrial matrix
  37. What is the net production of ATP from fermentation?
    2 ATP
  38. Heart and liver cells can produce more ATP for each molecule of glucose than other cells in the body. What would be the logical reasoning for this?
    a more efficient mechanism for moving NADH produced in glycolysis into the mitochondrial matrix

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