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What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?
- Saturated: all single carbon-carbon bonds
- Unsaturated: one or more double carbon-carbon bonds
What are the functions of triacylglycerol?
- Store energy
- thermal insulation
- padding (for organs etc.)
What is the function of phospholipids?`
they're a structural component of cell membranes
Vitamin D, hormones, cholesterol and vitamin A are all example of?
What is the function of steroids?
regulate metabolic activités
What is the function of fatty acids (eicosanoids)?
serve as local hormones
Lipids are insoluble in the blood, so how ae they transported?
Lipoproteins: lipid core surrounded by phospholipids and apoproteins
Name the 5 forces that create the tertiary structure in protein formation
- 1. Covalent disulfide bonds between two cysteine amino acids on different parts of the chain
- 2. Ionic interactions mostly between acidic and basic chains
- 3. Hydrogen bonds
- 4. Van Der Walls forces
- 5. Hydrophobic side chaines pushed away by water
animals can digest ________ linkages on starch and glycogen, but not ______ linkages in cellulose; however, _________ can digest _____ linkages in cellulose
Nucleotides are linked via ___________ bonds
- (phosphate group + 3rd carbon of the other nucleotide)
- linkage = 5' --> 3'
- a cyclic stereoisomer
- ex. α-glucose vs β-glucose
enzymes are typically _________ proteins.
Like any catalyst, they _______ to the equilibrium of a reaction.
- globular proteins
- do not alter
Vmax is __________ to [enzyme]...
Km is related to Vmax, where [substrate] causes a run rate of ____ Vmax
What is the difference between a "cofactor" and a "coenzyme"?
- Cofactor: non-protein component, minerals
- Coenzyme: vitamins, ATP, vitamin derivatives
Enzyme + cofactor = ________
Enzyme w/o cofactor = _______
3 factors that affect enzyme activity
- substrate concentration
3 classes of enzyme inhibitors
- competative inhibitors
- non-competative inhibitors
- irreversible inhibitors
What is the classic method to identify competitive inhibition?
increase substrate concentration to overcome inhibition
______ inhibitors raise Km, but not Vmax.
______ inhibitors lower Vmax, but Km stays the same.
Many enzymes are released into its environment in its inactive form called?
zymogen or proenzyme
Define negative feedback
- when one enzyme in the early reaction is inhibited by the product downstream in the reaction series
- stops run when the series has produced sufficient amounts of product
Define "positive feedback"
- a product returns to activate an enzyme
- occurs less often than negative feedback
the general function of a "kinase"
enzyme that phosphorylates something
the general function of a "phosphotase"
enzyme that dephosphorylates something
Where does glycolysis occur?
In the cytosol with or w/o oxygen
Name the products of glycolysis
- 2 ATP
- Inorganic phosphate and water
- 2 Molecules of NADH from reduced NAD+
- 1- dihydroxyacetone phosphate (3 carbon)
- 1- glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (PGAL)
In which step is glucose modified to assist in the facilitated diffusion mechanism to transport it into the cell?
- The first step of glycolysis
- hexokinase enzyme
Aerobic respiration occurs where?
Mitochondrial Matrix of the mitochondria
Each turn of the Kreb's cycle produces?
the process of ATP production in the Krebs cycle is called what?
substrate level phosphorylation
Including glycolysis, how many ATPs are produced from aerobic respiration?
Define: "electron transport chain"
a series of proteins, including cytochromes with heme, in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
In the ETC, a proton gradient is formed called the __________ which drives ATP synthase to produce 34 ATP.
Production of ATP in this fashion is known as?
In a human renal cortical cell, the Krebs cycle occurs in the?
As electrons move within the ETC, each intermediate is _____ by the preceding molecule and _______ by the following molecule
- reduced (preceding)
- oxidized (following)
in aerobic respiration, the energy from the oxidation of NADH does what?
established a proton gradient (H+) between the intermembrane space and the mitochondrial matrix
What is the net production of ATP from fermentation?
Heart and liver cells can produce more ATP for each molecule of glucose than other cells in the body. What would be the logical reasoning for this?
a more efficient mechanism for moving NADH produced in glycolysis into the mitochondrial matrix