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2014-06-21 12:53:15

Show Answers:

  1. what are the three primary functions of the digestive system
    • intake and digestion (intake of water, vitamins and minerals plus the intake and digestion)
    • absorption (absorption of food particles water vitamins and essential elements into the blood or lymphatic capillaries)
    • elimination: eliminates any unused material in the form of semisolid waste
  2. what is a scout film
    is an xray where the take it before the procedure is done
  3. ________ or _______ is the study of the pharynx and esophagus
    esophagram or barium swallow
  4. the upper GI series is a study of the ______
    distal esophagus stomach and duodenum
  5. what structures are in the oral cavity
    • upper and lower teeth
    • hard and soft palates
    • palatine uvula
    • pharynx
  6. what are the accessory organs of digestion
    how much do these glands secrete saliva daily
    • salivary glands GB pancreas liver
    • 1000-1500ml
  7. what is a term for chewing movements
  8. what are the three accessory glands located in the oral cavity that secrete the most saliva
    where is the location of each
    • parotid gland - near the ear
    • submandibular - under the mandible
    • sublingual - under the tongue
  9. what is the function of saliva
    what is the form the food takes after saliva has gotten to it
    • dissolves food so digestion can begin
    • a bolus
  10. what does saliva contain that begins the digestion of starch
  11. the act of swallowing is ____
  12. where is the pharynx located and how long is it
    • it is located posterior to nasal cavity, mouth and larynx
    • 12.5cm long
  13. what the three parts included in the pharynx
    nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
  14. List all the accessory organs of the alimentary canal
    • salivary glands
    • pancreas
    • liver
    • gallbladder
  15. list all the main organs of the alimentary canal in order (7)
    • oral cavity (mouth)
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • duodenum and small intestine
    • large intestine
    • anus
  16. what happens during swallowing (list process)
    • the soft palate closes off the nasopharynx
    • the tongue prevents material from re entering the mouth
    • the epiglottis is depressed to cover the laryngeal opening to trachea
    • respiration is inhibited
  17. where is the nasopharynx located
    where is the oropharynx located (extends from what two parts of the mouth)
    • posterior to the bony nasal septum nasal cavities and soft palate (not part of digestive system)
    • directly posterior to the oral cavity
    • extends from the soft palate to the epiglottis
  18. where is the laryngopharynx located (extends from what two structures)
    extends from the level of the epiglottis to the level of the lower border of the larynx (level of C6)
  19. where is the esophagus located (what is its landmark)
    the esophagus terminates at what landmark
    • posterior to the lower border of cricoid cartilage (C6)
    • t11
  20. what is the narrowest part of the alimentary canal
  21. what are the two indentations the esophagus passes through of the posterior mediastinum
    • 1. aortic arch
    • 2. left primary bronchus
  22. what is the short portion or opening of the esophagus between the diaphragm and the stomach is called _____
    cardiac antrum (abdominal segment)
  23. what is the opening between the esophagus and the stomach _____
    esophogastric junction (cardiac orifice)
  24. what muscle is the esophagus made of
    skeletal and smooth
  25. what is peristalsis
    a wavelike series of involuntary muscular contraction propelling solid and semi solid materials through the alimentary canal
    • fundus
    • 2. body
    • 3. cardiac notch
    • 4. cardiac antrum
    • 5. cardia
    • 6. pyloric portion
    • 7. pyloric sphincter
    • 8. angular notch
    • 9. duodenum
    • 10. pyloric canal
    • 11. pyloric antrum
    • 12. greater curvature
    • 13. lesser curvature
  26. what is the area or space between the superior portion of the stomach (fundus) and eshophagus
    cardiac notch
  27. where is the angular notch located
    below the lesser curvature
  28. what is the opening of the pyloric portion into the opening of the duodenum or the opening into the distal stomach
    pyloric orifice
  29. what is the first second and third  fourth portions of the pyloric region
    • pyloric portion
    • pyloric antrum
    • pyloric canal
    • pyloric orifice
  30. when the stomach is empty the internal lining is thrown into the numerous longitudinal folds called ______
  31. where is the gastric canal
    it is formed by the rugae along the lesser curvature it funnels fluids directly from the body of the stomach to the pyloric region
  32. what is the most posterior and superior portion of the stomach
  33. in what position will the fundus of the stomach is the most posterior portion and is where the heavy barium settles
    where is the gas?
    • Ap supine position
    • collects inthe body of the stomach and pyloric regions
  34. in what position will cause the fundus to collect with air and allow the barium to settle in in the body of the stomach and the pyloric region
    RAO recumbent
  35. what position is this

    ap supine barium in fundus air everywhere else because barium gravitates to the top posterior areas
  36. what position is this and why

    this is a rao pa prone because the air is filled in the the fundus making it black and the barium is filling the body and pylorus regions
  37. what is the shape of the duodenum and what organ sits into this shape
    • C -shape
    • pancreas
  38. what is the shortest widest portion of the small bowel
    how long is it
    duodenum 10 inches
  39. the portion of SI where the duodenum ends and goes into the jejunum is at the area of the _____ (two names)
    suspensory ligament (ligament of treitz)
  40. what are the stomach contents that are churned or mixed with stomach fluids into a semi fluid mass called
  41. how long does gastric emptying take
    which food leaves the body the quickest
    • 2-6 hrs
    • carbs
  42. what is the churning or mixing activity of chyme in the small bowel called
    what does it do
    • rhythmic segmentation
    • it allows the digested food into contact with the intestinal lining or mucosa to facilitate absorption
  43. in the mechanics of digestion what occurs in each cavity:
    small intestine
    • oral: mastication and swallowing
    • pharynx: deglutition
    • esophagus: deglutition and peristalsis
    • stomach: mixing of chyme and peristalsis
    • small intestine: rythmic segmentation (churning) and peristalsis
  44. Carbs fats and proteins are digested where
    • carbs (sugars) in mouth and stomach
    • protein (amino acids) in stomach and small bowel
    • fats fatty acids and glycerol (only in small bowel)
  45. what substances are not absorbed but are digested
    vitamins minerals and water
  46. thick and thin barium has what kind of ratio
    • thin 1:1
    • thick 4:1
  47. what does colloidal suspension mean
    it it is the ability of barium sulfate to separate from water if not mixed properly
  48. why are their contraindications to using barium
    • because there all other factors that come into playing when using although not many patients are allergic to it
    • factors:
    • preop
    • do not give when there are perforations in bowel so barium does not go in the holes
    • allergies
  49. what should not be used if the pt is allergic to iodinated contrast
    water soluble
  50. what exam requires no prep for the patient (like no eating or drinking 24 hrs prior to exam)
  51. what are the diagnosis of esophageal reflux
    • breathing exercises (valsalva and mueller)
    • the water test
    • compression paddle technique
    • to touch test
  52. what are the routine positions for the esophagram
    • RAO (35-40)
    • Lateral
    • Ap (PA)

    • Special:
    • LAO
    • soft tissue Lateral
  53. Where is CR for an RAO esophagram
    what size casette should you use and where should the top of casette be
    what is the obliquity of the patient
    • perp to t5-t6
    • 14x17; top of cassette 2'' above level of shoulders
    • 35-40 deg
  54. what lateral is always used for a lateral esophagram and where is the CR
    the top of the casette is where and what is the breathing
    • right lateral
    • CR to t5-t6
    • 2 inches above level of shoulders
    • suspend respiration on expiration
  55. where is the CR for an ap esophagram
    • perp to t5 and t6
    • everything else is same as other positions
    • 40 SID
    • cassette 2 in above shoulders
    • suspend on expiration 14x17
  56. where is the CR for a soft tissue lateral
    where is the top of the cassette & size
    what is the SID
    what is the breathing
    • perp to c6 (laryngeal prominence)
    • top of casette to level of EAM; 10x12
    • 72 SID
    • exposure on slow inspiration to allow trachea to fill with air
  57. how long is the esophagus
    9.75 in or 25 cm
  58. the esophagus is located where to the heart
    adjacent to the right and posterior heart borders