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What is the major weakness in PD's, from a firefighting and fire protection standpoint?
OPEN and UNENCLOSED STARIWAY
Private Dwellings are generally what shape and what construction Class??
CLASS 3 (NFP)
CLASS 4 (FRAME)
Flat roofs or roofs of low pitch will SOMETIMES have...?
scuttle and/or skylight
In PD's how many entrances are usually found?
2 entrances are most common
main-front (sometimes side)
secondary- front, side, rear
interior stairs to the cellar will usually be located under the main stair
Which type of PD's will BALLON FRAME construction commonly be found?
- Straight Line Colonial
- Queen Anne
In a Cape Style house, what usually indicated the presence of 2nd floor bedrooms??
Window Dormers (exposure 2 and 4 windows provide easiest access to these rooms)
Where would we find a Cupola/turret?
Queen Anne- tower like room with a round or dome shaped roof
When arriving at a flat roof PD, it may be difficult to determine it has a flat roof, why? what will indicate a flat roof)
- decorative peaks in the front
- absence of a window will indicate flat roof
Many new PD's are constructed of these light weight materials?
- wooden I Beams
- metal C joists
- lightweight wooden trusses
Any building with lightweight construction must be....?
entered into CIDS
CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF THE INTERIOR STAIRS IS CRITICAL TO A SUCCESSFUL OPERATION
T OR F
Pull down type stairs in PDs, providing attic access can be used to access attic or advancement line
T or F
use portable ladder
Do we use off set windows (when we have multiple secondary entrances) for VEIS??
Indications of multiple families in PD's??
- number of electric meters
- fire escapes
- multiple entrance doors
- numerous cars in driveway
- exterior cellar/basement entrance
- garage doors removed
What are indications of attic occupancy??
- attic area with a dormer
- adequate height (approx 7 feet)
- AC unit
- windows of fair size (curtains/drapes)
Is Balloon Frame construction good for firestopping?
No...lacks firestopping between floors and walls
PLATFORM CONSTRUCTION LIMITS FIRE EXTENSION
If upper floor windows are inaccessible, or cannot be entered due to their size, what should the Officer do??
have these rooms search by INTERIOR TEAM
What is an indication of the location of staircases to upper floors?
off set windows (windows at top or bottom of staircase)
Outside Ladder company positions are predicated on whether the roof is...?
FLAT OR PEAKED
ENGINE COMPANY OPS
At a PD, when a first arriving engine back stretches to the hydrant, what should they also consider doing???
dropping 2 handlines in front of the building
Hoseline should be FLAKED OUT, CHARGED and BLED, where...?
before entering the BUILDING
What entrance do we use when stretching the FIRST HOSELINe into a cellar fire??
entrance door that provides quickest access to fire area...main or secondary entrance
What are possible indications of a Cellar Fire??
- fire or smoke venting from cellar window
- smoke pushing from the chimney (especially during warmer weather)
- high heat and heavy smoke with no visible fire on the first floor
- very hot floorboards on the 1st floor-smoke from baseboards on the first floor
- smoke from attic windows or louvered vents (older homes w/ balloon frame construction)
What is a CRITICAL factor during a cellar fire??
status of the INTERIOR CELLAR DOOR
When entering the 1st floor of a PD, what is an indication that the interior cellar entrance door is open??
using a TIC, showing heat waves across first floor ceiling
smoke showing force and speed under pressure
What are some reasons the IC (could be first due OFfcer) would order an exterior hoseline operated into a cellar window for a quick knock down??
- unable to access or locate secondary entrance
- unable to advance down interior stairs
- serious or advanced cellar fire
- cellar fire involving lightweight construction
- unable to locate any cellar entrance
When operating into cellar window, which members should be operating in the cellar??
- consider these options:
- charged hoseline on the floor above
- secure area of refuge
- exit the building
You pull up to a fire in the cellar of a PD, while your members are conducting a search, they get trapped by fire in the cellar...as the first arriving Officer of Ladder 9, what should be your next move?
You (the IC) should order the immediate operation of a hoseline into a cellar window.
note: good practice in PD fires (especially serious cellar fire) is to have a precautionary charged hoseline in position near the front of the building
First Hose line at Cellar fire in PD??
entrance to cellar that provides quickest access (interior stairs, outside entrance, side, rear)
bilco doors LEAST desirable
in row of PD's- best is usually MAIN ENTRANCE
In deciding to advance down INTERIOR STAIRS to extinguish cellar fire, what is the paramount concern??
SAFETY OF MEMBERS
The first hoseline is advance to the first floor, but CANNOT advance down the interior cellar stairs, what should the Officer of that 1st due Engine do??
FIRST HOSELINE will remain on 1st floor:
- protect interior stairs
- protect members
- extinguish extension from cellar
control of interior cellar door is critical
The decision to REPOSITION the first hoseline to a secondary entrance, can only be made by whom??
acting CHEIF OFFICER or CHEIF OFFICER
- factors to be considered: another hoseline available?
- is repositioning protecting life?
- will delay of water severely expose adjoining
When repositioning this first hose line, the IC shall transmit an URGENT message to broadcast this to all members.
T or F
BEFORE repositioning this first hose line, Ladder company members operating on the 1ST FLOOR must be withdrawn
T or F
*UPPER FLOORS- WITHDRAWN TO SAFE AREA ONLY*
Where is the second hoseline positioned at a PD fire??
initially positioned and charged outside building as back up for the 1st hoseline...if not needed as back up, it can be used on upper floors or as per IC (exposure protection, stretched into exposure, auto exposure, 1st floor protection, cellar via second entrance)
Where is the 3rd hoseline placed at a PD?
as ordered by IC
First Floor Fires in PD
1st line? 2nd line? 3rd line?
1st line-main entrance door to the first floor
2nd line- back up first, if not needed (cellar, other floors, exposures)
3rd line-ordered by IC
Upper floor fires in PD
1st line? 2nd line? 3rd line?
1st line- main entrance to upper floor
2nd line-backup, if not needed..(other floors, exposure..etc.)
3rd line- as ordered by IC
For First floor fires and upper floor fires, what should be done, before committing first hoseline to corresponding floor?
first floor fire- make sure fire did not start in cellar
upper floor fire- make sure fire did not start on lower floor
Building Fully involved, units shoud leave front accesible for..?
At a Fully INvolved PD, units should consider stretching a 2 1/2" line for faster knock down, greater reach of stream, more water and exposure protection.
T or F
2 1/2" shall also be considered for wind impacted fire in large PD
Units operating a hoseline to extinguish fire on the exterior of a building should do what???
sweep the stream across the face of the building, starting at the top, so the water cascades down
PD's may have limited space between them...at ground level? at roof level?
ground- 6-8 feet
roof- 2-3 feet
Ladder Company Operations
What is a quick way to ascertain if a structure is balloon frame construction?
Remove a BASEBOARD on an exterior wall and check for the presence of a SOLE PLATE
no sole plate found = balloon construction
What type of construction causes fire to easily extend from cellar to attic via the exterior wall channels??
balloon frame (will bypass intermediate floors)
In PLATFORM construction the exterior wall studs extend only from the floor to the ceiling of each individual floor, capped by??
top plate...effective fire stop, limits vertical extension
Who is responsible for shutting down utilities, at a PD fire??
2nd to arrive ladder company
At PD fire, which truck company will examine cellar for fire??
1st due truck, if conditions permit.....
if not, notify 2nd due truck
1st due Inside team?
- Can--extinguisher and hook
- Irons-axe and halligan
force entry, remove storm door, ventilate and search
position, tools and duties same for portable, aerial and TL ops
At PD fire, who should initiate removal of window bars on both the front and rear of the building early in the operation??
1st due truck (search and rescue duties may preclude window bar removal
PD- Peak Roof- Portable Ladders
OV-hook Halligan/portable ladder
LCC-portable/tools deem necessary
roof ops NOT initial consideration
Roof/OV team up VEIS from exterior: quick survey of perimeter for occupants..no visible life hazard, then perform VEIS of upper floor most likely to be occupied
LCC- raise portable to porch or garage roof, vent fire area/room as directed, team up with 2nd LCC for VEIS
if sizeup indicated occupied attic- VEIS attic with permission (from AERial or TL)
PD-Peaked Roof-Aerial Ladder Ops
- If Aerial rescue-ROOF and OV will operate
- VEIS upper floors
- vent attic window
- vent fire area/room
- at turntable
- position apparatus to cover 2 sides
- Roof/OV need aerial, LCC must position
- Roof/OV don't need aerial, LCC may request permission to use for necessary ventilation
- team up with 2nd due LCC for VEIS
- fire controlled and members in building are not in immediate danger...LCC can enter building for search and overhaul
PD-Peaked Roof-TL ops
- perimeter survey
- rescue- OPERATE from TL bucket
- VEIS upper floors
- vent attic window
- vent fire area/room
- position TL to cover 2 sides
- remain at turntable
- under control/no members in danger- assist with searches and overhauling
At PD fires, a properly positioned TL can reach which windows??
front and side windows on the UPPER LEVELS
In a PD fire, prior to proceeding to the floors above via the interior stairs (2nd due Ladder), who shall you notify??
company officers operating on the fire floor
secure a secondary means of egress
PD/ Peaked Roof/ Portables
2nd due truck
roof/Ov- hook /halligan/portable...outside survey and VEIS areas not covered by first due...VENT ROOF as directed by LCO operating inside fire area
LCC-front of building...team up with first due LCC
PD/Peaked Roof/Aerial Ladder Ops
2nd due truck
roof/ov-operate from aerial...If 1st due is using AERIAL, then vent upper floors with portables...vent roof as directed
LCC-position and operate Aerial on upper floors ...if 2nd apparatus will not be used to ladder building, assist 1ST DUE.
PD/Peaked Roof/TL ops
2nd due truck
Roof/OV-operate from bucket, if 1st due is in bucket, then use portables for upper floors..vent roof
LCC-turntable..position TL to cover 2 sides..if 2nd apparatus will not be used, contact 1st due and provide assistance
When required to vent a roof, the assignment usually rests with?
2nd arriving ladder company
(usually at peak roof operations, attic windows or louvers is sufficient ventilation)
roof skylights found, they should be vented prior to cutting the roof only when directed by the ladder company officer operating in the fire area
Peak Roof Ops...what is the roof access?
What is the proper positioning of a TL for roof ventilation in peaked PD?
parallel to the front of building, so the basket can be placed over the corner of the building near the peak of the roof..
if not..place basket in VALLEY
What is the proper position of the Aerial when venting a peaked roof?
position apparatus to facilitate raising and extending the ladder over the corner of the building..extend ladder at least 5 feet above and to one side of the peak
if not..position in VALLEY
When opening a peaked roof, where is the first hole made?
at the MAIN GABLE
When cutting the roof with an axe...?
- straddle peak
- cut a hole over fire, parallel to and on the lee side of the ridge
- size should be limited to members reach and maneuverability..generally 2' x 3'
- 6 ft hook (10 foot hook for Queen Anne) to push down ceiling
Roof FF-halligan/6 ft hook/LSR
Roof of fire building-Aerial/TL/Portable..scissor ladder to similar uninvolved attached exposure-scuttle
LSR rescue-contact LCC for assistance
vent roof/vent rear windows of top floor
When using an attached exposure for interior access to the roof, what should the roof man avoid??
immediate joining in attached wood frame type P.D.'s
- assist LCC in front with ladder rescue
- attached PD's- go to rear
- quick survey of perimeter
- no visible life hazard, VEIS upper floor area most likely to be occupied (team up with 2nd due OV)
- front of building
- operate aerial or TL
- placement of roof ff on the roof
- assist roof ff with portable ladder placement on roof
- team up with 2nd due LCC
2nd due truck
- assist in roof vent of fire building and exposures
2nd due truck
- portable ladder/halligan/hook
- assist 2nd due LCC in front w/ladder rescue
- conduct survey of the rear and sides
- team up with 1st Due OV for VEIS
In attached PD's, what is the task of the 2nd due OV?
- (except for assisting LCC in front of the building with rescue or removal)
- CHECK REAR AND ENSURE VENTILATION
IF NECESSARY, TEAM UP WITH 2ND DUE LCC TO CHECK IDLH EXPOSURES
2ND DUE TRUCK
- assist with laddering in front
- team up with first due LCC for VEIS
- if 1st due LCC and 1st due OV have teamed up, then team up with 2nd due OV for VEIS of areas not covered by first due
TOP FLOOR FIRES W/EXPOSURE PROBLEMS- LCC may be used to examine exposures, if IDLH, team up with 2nd due OV
Due to the number of FF's that may be needed for portable ladder rescue at Queen Annes, what is good practice??
special call an ADDITIONAL LADDER COMPANY
At a 2 family dwelling, what is the Roof/OV of first arriving ladder company initial duty??
Fire in CELLAR OR FIRST FLOOR
- perimeter survey for rescue
- ventilate first floor windows and search
- ensure ALL BEDROOMS on 1st floor are searched quickly
Cellar fires at PD, the first due truck should operate with first hoseline.
True or False?
it is critical at cellar fires that the first ladder inside team operate in a manner that supports the FIRST HOSELINE
If the first ladder descends the interior cellar stairs, before a hoseline is available, what should be done?
inside teams descends
leave a member at top of stairs to control door
What is the last desirable of secondary entrances to cellar??
If the decision is made to advance first hoseline down interior cellar stairs, the first due truck should first perform a primary search, where?
the 1ST FLOOR
if the engine requires assistance to advance the line through the cellar, ONE MEMBER of the interior ladder team should be sent to provide assistance
If first hoseline does NOT advance down the interior cellar stair, where should the 1st due truck operate?
primary search on 1st floor and floors above
What is critical when dealing with a cellar fire?
the status of the INTERIOR CELLAR DOOR
What are indications of an open interior cellar door?
- TIC-heat waves emanating across 1st fl.ceiling
- smoke action-significatn force under pressure
When the second hoseline is advanced through a secondary cellar entrance, which truck will assume responsibility of cellar?
2nd due truck-search and examination
In attic operations, special attention must be paid too...?
eaves, gables, cornices
louvers- concern for fire spread
If there is limited attic access, the ladder company can assist engine company ops...opening what size hole?
3 foot section of ceiling on floor below, small extension ladder to sweep attic space
If wood is encountered when making attic opening, you may have encountered what?
shift 3 feet to one side to make another opening and use bent tip or cockloft nozzle
If windows bars are present, what should the IC do?
special call an additional engine and ladder
In any building construction, what is the critical area subject to failure, as a result of fire?
point of connection
What type of PD's is early collapse not a prime considerations?
Collapsed time in traditional PD's?
about an hour
no ceiling-20 minutes
In lightweight PD's, when fire extends from contents to structure, what is collapse time?
5 to 10 minutes
What is ALWAYS the prime consideration in lightweight PD's??
What is of paramount importance, when fire has extended to the structural components in lightweight PD's?
positioning the 1st hose line for easy extinguishment
An indication of lightweight construction is areas unsupported by columns with spans greater than???
ANY MEMBER becoming aware of Lightweight construction shall…?
Lightweight wood truss roofs may be flat or peaked.
True or False
a large open cockloft/attic is found
What is the most common peaked roof found in lightweight construction??
open web lightweight wood truss
When a lightweight wood truss peaked roof is exposed to sufficient fire, what will collapse as one unit??
- rafters (top chord of truss)
- roof decking
- ceiling joists (bottom chord of truss)
Plywood will burn rapidly, fail at a faster rate
T or F
NYC BUILDING CODE requires lightweight constructed spaces between the ceiling and the floor above or the ceiling and roof above to be divided into approximately equal areas of …?
500 sq ft or less
UNLESS building is equipped with automatic sprinkler
4 most common types of lightweight systems?
- Lightweight parallel chord truss
- laminated wood I-beams
- Metal C-Joists
- Composite Truss
What is the weakest point of the support system in Lightweight parallel Chord wood truss??
gang nails (metal gusset plates)-only penetrate 1/4" to 1/2" into the wooden truss member
What type of lightweight supports system can span distances over 60 feet?
laminated wood I-beams
openignts in the web to accomodate utilities
A heavy fire and smoke condition on a floor or in the cellar accompanied by little or no smoke condtion on the floor or floors above may be an inidciation of a...?
concrete or gypsum floor poured over corrugated steel (Q decking) supported by C-joists
early floor collapse
Composite truss is composed of 2 type of materials...?
wood and steel
under fire conditions-lose strength and fail rapidly
Upon arrival, what should be included as part of size up?
age of building and any signs of renovations
Lightweight construction must be suspected in newer type buildings.
T or F
When lightweight construction is present, what should be examined immediately?
Who shall ensure all members on the scene are alert to the presence of lightweight construction?
information shall also be transmitted to borough dispatcher in the preliminary and/or progress reports
When heated gases build up in the conealed spaces of the trussloft and attic/cockloft, there is a much greater potential for??
When inspection holes are made the TIC should be used to determine if any heat is present in and around...?
gusset plates and C-joists
True or False
TIC will always detect heat where double- 5/8" plasterboard is used.
The primary emphasis for a fire in a lightweight building under construction is that of an EXTERIOR ATTACK
T or F
not if fire is MINOR or confined to SMALL AREA
When fire is fould in a vertical void, what should be promptly checked?
What is an indication of fire in the trussloft?
smoke pushing at the floor line on the outside of a building
probability of collapse significantly increased
Engine company Ops at lightweight PD's
positioning of 1st hoseline for quick knockdown of CONTENTS FIRE-paramount
- 2nd hoseline back up first
- exception- address life hazard or directed by IC
3rd- back up 1st hoseline or directed by IC, depending on 2nd hoseline
STRUCTURAL Fire in a lightweight PD..special call...?
additional ENGINE COMPANY
FLOOR DECK hazard , when supports are how far apart??
24"..potential exists for larger opening to be formed, members may fall through
Nozzle FF's use what method?