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Anonymous
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274232
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TOLD
Updated:
2014-05-12 23:10:38
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  1. Critical Engine Failure Speed VCEF
    Critical engine failure speed is defined as the speed at which one engine can fail and the same distance is required to either continue to accelerate to liftoff speed, or to abort and decelerate to a full stop
  2. Minimum control speed air VMCA
    • Is the minimum controllable speed in the takeoff configuration out of ground effect with one engine inoperative and the remaining engine at takeoff rated thrust
    • VMCA is determined at the most critical combination of asymmetric thrust, light weight, and aft center of gravity.
    • The speed is established with the aircraft trimmed for takeoff, 5 degrees angle of bank into the operating engine and no more than 180 pounds of rudder control force by the pilot with the rudder boost system operating
    • VMCA is always less than takeoff speed and is not considered in takeoff planning
  3. Refusal speed V
    • Refusal speed is the maximum speed that can be attained, with normal acceleration, from which a stop may be completed within available runway length
    • Refusal speed is compared with ground minimum control speed and rotation speed in determining S1
  4. Maximum Braking Speed VB
    • Maximum speed from which the aircraft can be brought to a stop without exceeding the maximum braking energy limit (14.8 million foot pounds total)
    • When setting up the takeoff acceleration check, care should be taken to choose the checkpoint such that the resulting speed is below VB
  5. Reference Zero
    • The point in space at the end of the takeoff flare distance at which the aircraft reaches 50 feet above the runway elevation
    • Reference zero will occur no later than the departure end of the runway
  6. Critical field length
    • Is the total length of the runway required to accelerate on all engines to critical engine failure speed, experience an engine failure, then continue to lift off or stop.
    • It is used during takeoff planning together with the climbout data to determine maximum gross weight for a safe takeoff and climbout
    • For a safe takeoff, the critical field length must be no greater than the runway available
  7. Minimum control speed ground VMCG
    • Is the minimum controllable speed during the takeoff run, at which, when an engine is failed, it is possible to maintain directional control using only the primary aerodynamic controls without deviating more than 25 feet laterally with all three wheels on the runway
    • The speed is established with the remaining engine at the takeoff thrust setting, the aircraft loaded at the most unfavorable weight and center of gravity, and the aircraft trimmed for takeoff, without exceeding 180 pounds of rudder control force by the pilot with the rudder boost system operating
    • Conditions of crosswind and RCR may increase VMCG
  8. Rotation speed VROT
    • The speed at which the aircraft attitude is increased from the ground run (taxi) attitude to the lift off attitude
    • This speed is greater than the ground minimum control speed (VMCG)
  9. Go/ No-go speed S1
    • The takeoff is committed at indicated airspeeds at or above S1 
    • If an engine failure occurs prior to obtaining S1 and action is taken to stop the aircraft before obtaining S1, takeoff abort capability is assured
    • In takeoff planning, S1 is equal to or greater than the higher of ground minimum control speed or critical engine failure speed
    • However, S1 must not be higher than the lowest of refusal speed, rotation speed or maximum braking speed
    • If it is higher, the takeoff weight must be reduced until this requirement is met

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