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Drug Offenders sentenced to federal prison, what percentage of their sentence are they required to serve?
Increasing tougher sentencing of laws did what to availability?
Federal offenders must serve at least 87% of their sentence.
Tougher sentencing has failed to decrease availability of drugs or drug use.
who developed theory of anomie? Durkheim
how are black pregnant woman vs white pregnant women when suspected that they use drugs:
In 1980's drug abuse among pregnant women was made a crime, aimed at punishing rather than empowering them which created a gender specific system of punishment. Poor black women were made made primary targets for prosecuters; they are 10 times more likely than other women to reported to citil authorities for drug use.
definitions of drug abuse:
The use of any drug or medication for a reason other than the one it was intended to serve or in a manner or in quantities other than directed, which can lead to clinically significant impairment or distress.
refers to physical or psychological dependence on the drug or medication
Symptoms of alcoholism:
loss of control (not being able to stop drinking once drinking begins)
physical dependence (experiencing withdrawal symptoms)
Tolerance (the need to drink greater amounts of alcohol to get a high)
Rates of fatal vehicle crashes among young people vs older people:
The rate of fatal crashes among alcohol involved drivers aged 16 to 20 is more than twice the rate for alcohol involved drivers age 21 or older.
approx what percentage of Americans have tried marijuana at least once in their life time:
Estimated 141 million people or 2.45% of the world's population consuming it; liftetime use: 37% in some countiries
Acute marijuana use, what does it do in terms of health consequences:
It can impair short-term memory, judgment, and other cognitive functions, as well as a person's coordination and balance, and it can increase heart rate.
what is the most prevalent synthetic drugs manufactured in us:
what are some arguments why drugs should be legalized:
current drug laws and law enforcement initiatives have failed to eradicate the drug problem, arrest and incarcerating individuals for drug offenses does nothing to alleviate the drug problem, drug crimes are actually victim-less crimes, legalization will lead to arduction in drug related crimes and violence and improve the quality of life in inner cities, and legalization will also eliminate serious health risks by providing clean and high quality substances; it would also give back a basic civil liberty to citizens by granting them control over their own bodies.
when individuals lack sufficient resources to deal with demanding social situations or circumstances; occurs when the demands of ones role exceeds ones ability and resources to fullfill that role.
Roughly how many of women are untreated substance abuses:
52% (pg 323)
which ethic group has highest rate/prevalence of smoking:
Native Americans & Alaskan Natives (35.8%)
second to marijuana, what is the most frequently used illicit drug among young people?
binge drinking for adults? what is age group with highest rage:
National Survey on Drug Use and Health reported that the highest prevalence of binge drinking was for young adults ages 18 to 25 (45.9%). Binge drinking among college students has been called a major U.S. public health concern
BOOK: The highest prevalence of binge drinking (drinking fiver or more drinks w/in a few hours or within one sitting) was for young adults aged 21-15 (30.3%) followed by 26-29 yo's (27.2%)
Merton's theory and strange ways of adapting:
Robert Merton’s strain theory: We are socialized to attain traditional material and social goals. When opportunities are blocked due to discrimination, social position, or talent we experience anomie. This leads to crime. Criminal activity would decline if economic conditions improve.
social control theorist & their take on crime?
Social control theorists ask why someone doesn’t commit crime
- Four elements control behavior:
- Attachments(relationships with others), Commitment (acceptance of conventional goals and means), Involvement (participation in conventional activities), Beliefs (acceptance of conventional values and norms).
what is main point that conflict theorist make about criminal laws, who do they benefit?
Criminal laws do not exist for our good; they exist to preserve the interests and power of specific groups.
Gender inequality theorist: relationship b/w female crime and gender inequality?
Gender inequality theories have been presented as explanations of female crime. Patriarchal power relations shape gender differences in crime, pushing women into criminal behavior through role entrapment, economic marginalization, victimization, or as a survival response.
it isn’t the criminal or his/her act that is important, but the audience that labels the person or act as “criminal.”
differential association theory:
individuals are likely to commit deviant acts if they associate with others who are deviants
Who has highest crime victimization rate?
Blacks have had the highest violent crime victimization rates since 1973.
What is the most complete life of crime?**
highest to lowest rank; lifetime chances of different ethnic groups serving in federal prison:
The lifetime chances of a person going to state or fed prison are higher for men than women, and higher for black males-16.6%, Hispanic males-7.7% than white males (2.6%)
an estimated 33% of lack males will enter prison during their lifetime compared to 16% of Hispanic males and 6% of white males.
majority of death penalties, where do they occur in the world?
Differences b/w male and female inmates
how does disability impact chances of experiencing violence:
Disabled persons are more likely to experience higher rates of violence than those without a disability, the violent crime rate was approximates 86% for youth ages 16-19 yrs with disabilities vs. 34% for youth without.
Females with a disability had a higher victimization rate than males with a disability.
Roughly what percentage of murder victims are white?**
here does the field of urbanization sociology emerge and when?
From University of Chicago in the 1920's
What theoretical perspective were they first studied from?
Urban sociology adopted a functionalist approach, comparing a city to a biological organism.
the movement of individuals from one area to another.
the study of the size, composition, and distribution of human populations.
means to leave one's country to live in another.
is to come into another country to live permanently
Urbanization: 5 largest metro areas:
Long Island-New Nersey-New York
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana
What is the one ethnic group that moved the furthest in the US?
Where is fastest minority group?**
What is largest min group?
Mechanical solidarity: members in small simple societies united through a set of common values, beliefs and customs and a simple division of labor.
Organic solidarity: the result of increasing industrialization and the growth of large complex societies, where individuals are linked through a complex division of labor.
conseq of crowding in household: **
difficult to move and adjust into better living conditions?
who's least likely and most likely to be homeless
Most likely to be homeless: females members of ethnic minorities, somewhere in their 20-30's, with no or low monthly incomes. Other developed countries have also seen an increase in the numbers of homeless families and youth.
the process of neighborhood change which results in the replacement of lower income residents with higher income ones.
When the spread of development outpaces population growth.
– Creates four conditions:
1. Population widely dispersed in low density developments.
2. Rigidly separated homes, shops, and workplaces.
3. A network of roads marked by huge blocks and poor access.
4.A lack of well-‐defined activity centers, such as downtowns or town centers.
Average Commute Time:
On average, an American worker’s daily commute is about 24 minutes (one-‐way commute time).
Functionalist Perspective (Drug Abuse)
• Argue that society provides us with norms or guidelines on alcohol and drug use.
- • A set of social norms identify the appropriate use of drugs and alcohol.
- – Prescription drugs have medical function.
- – Alcohol in moderation for celebration, health benefits.
- • Society also provides norms regarding the excessive use of drugs
- – College students share perception that excessive college drinking is a cultural norm.
- • Functionalists use Durkheim’s theory of anomie to explain drug abuse.
- – Lacking norms to control behavior, people pursue self-destructive behaviors like alcohol abuse.
- – When people are in situations where they feel isolated and unsure what is expected of them they may experience high levels of stress which may lead to deviant behaviors, including drug abuse.
• Society can be the source of role strain-‐
when individuals lack sufficient resources to deal with demanding social situations or circumstances
Conflict Perspective-Chapter Twelve: Alcohol and Drug Abuse
• Conflict theorists argue that strategic decisions have determined which drugs are illegal and which are not.
• Powerful political and business interest groups manipulate images of drugs.
– Heroin, opium, and marijuana were legal in the late 18th and early 19th centuries but public opinion and law changed when their use was linked to ethnic minorities and crime.
Feminist Perspective Chapter Twelve: Alcohol and Drug Abuse
• Feminist perspective -‐ experiences unique to women, minority ethnic groups, gay and lesbian populations, and other marginalized groups were ignored until the 1970s.
• There has been increasing recognition of gender-‐specific and gender-‐sensitive treatment models.
– Example -‐ separate women’s treatment programs.
Interactionist Perspective Chapter Twelve: Alcohol and Drug Abuse
- • Interactionists argue that drug abuse is learned from others.
- – Theory of differential association explains how we learn specific behaviors and norms from the groups we have contact with.
• The interactionist perspective also addresses how individuals or groups are labeled “abusers” and how society responds to them.
- • Criminal behavior is normal and inevitable.
- – Crime is functional:
- • it separates acceptable from non-‐acceptable behavior in society.
- – Society and its rules are what make us human:
- • Without any social regulation, humans are able to pursue their own desires (even criminal ones).
- – Anomie: a state of normlessness: a structural condition where there is no or little regulation of behavior, which leads to deviant or criminal behavior.
• Robert Merton’s strain theory .
–We are socialized to attain traditional material and social goals.
–When opportunities are blocked due to discrimination, social position, or talent we experience anomie.
– This leads to crime.
– Criminal activity would decline if economic conditions improve
• Agnew’s Expanded Strain Theory
– three types of social-‐psychological sources of strain
- – three types of social-‐psychological sources of strain
- – failure to achieve positively valued outcomes because of individual inadequacies due to ability or skill
- – removal of positive or desired stimuli from the individual
- – Confrontation with negative action (or stimuli) by others
• Provides insight into criminal offending differences by gender, class, race/ethnicity, communities and over the life course, as well as situational variations in crime
Social Control .
• Social control theorists ask why someone doesn’t commit crime.
- • Four elements control behavior:
- – Attachments-‐relationships with others
- – Commitment-‐acceptance of conventional goals and means
- – Involvement-‐participation in conventional activities
- – Beliefs-‐acceptance of conventional values and norms
• Criminal laws do not exist for our good; they exist to preserve the interests and power of specific groups.
• Criminal justice decisions are discriminatory and designed to sanction offenders based on their minority or subordinate group.
• While the powerful are able to resist criminal labels, they seem to stick to the powerless – the poor, youth, and minorities.
Feminist Perspective --Crime
• Focuses on how women’s criminal experiences are different from men, and also from each other based on race, ethnicity, class, age and sexual orientation.
- • Gender inequality theories have been presented as explanations of female crime.
- – Patriarchal power relations shape gender differences in crime, pushing women into criminal behavior through role entrapment, economic marginalization, victimization, or as a survival response.
Interactionist Perspective --Crime
• Interactionists examine the process that defines certain individuals and acts as “criminal”.
– Labeling theory -‐ it isn’t the criminal or his/her act that is important, but the audience that labels the person or act as “criminal.”
• Race and class matter in our perception of crime.
• Differential association theory
**The Processes of Urbanization and Suburbanization
• Urbanization -‐ the process by which a population shifts from rural to urban.
• Took off in the later half of the 19th century.
- • As industrial economy grew, people were drawn by work in factories and mills.
- – Helped by emigration of Europeans and the migration of Southern rural blacks and whites.
- – Overurbanization -‐ an excess population is concentrated in an urban area that lacks the capacity to provide basic services and shelter.
• Now a global concern for developing nations
After WW II, the U.S. experienced Suburbanization
–the outward expansion of central cities into suburban areas and
– Population shifts -‐ from the Snowbelt (industrial regions of the North and Midwest) to the Sunbelt (South and Southwest) and from rural to metropolitan areas.
– Facilitated by new housing laws and the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956.
Functionalist Perspective: industrialization and urbanization
• Durkheim: Society changed from mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity.
– Mechanical solidarity
-‐ members in small simple societies united through a set of common values, beliefs and customs and a simple division of labor.
– Organic solidarity -‐
the result of increasing industrialization and the growth of large complex societies, where individuals are linked through a complex division of labor.
• As a result of industrialization, social bonds which unite us will eventually weaken.
- • Industrialization and urbanization have been functional, creating a more efficient, interdependent and productive society, but have also been problematic. – With weakening of social bonds and an absence of norms, society begins to lose its ability to function effectively.
- – As social bonds weaken, so does sense of obligation or duty to one another.
- – Urbanization can lead to social problems such as crime, poverty, violence, and deviant behavior.
- – Solutions -‐ reinforcing or recreating social bonds through social institutions or instituting societal changes through political or economic initiatives.
Conflict and Feminist Perspectives--industrialization and urbanization
• Critical political-‐economy or socio-‐spatial perspective -‐ uses a conflict perspective to focus on how cities are formed on the basis of racial, gender or class inequalities.
• Cities are shaped by powerful actors working within capitalistic structure.
• Social problems are natural to this system, rising from the unequal distribution of power between politicians versus taxpayers, the rich versus the poor, or the homeowner versus the renter.
Feminist Perspectives--industrialization and urbanization
• Feminist urbanists argue for development of theory and research which acknowledge the role of women in urban structures.
• Theories about urbanization have taken a gender blind approach.
• Feminist theory on patriarchy can help us understand ways cities reproduce and challenge patriarchy and the problems this creates.
• Living conditions of lower income, inner city women have been affected by the economic restructuring of cities and the patterns of downtown development.
Interactionist Perspective industrialization and urbanization .
• A city’s economic, personal and intellectual relationships can’t be defined or confined by its physical space, they are as extensive as the interactions between its residents.
• A city represents an opportunity for individuals to find self expression, while being connected with fellow city dwellers.
• The way a city is constructed might actually interfere with your social interaction with others.
• Urban communities are segregated by income, race/ ethnicity, or immigrant status, which contributes to our isolation, physically and through meanings we attach to these different neighborhoods
• Symbolic Interactionists
• Symbolic Interactionists have noted that urban dwellers are able to create a “public privacy” while living in a demanding urban world.
• Using props like the newspaper or an iPod, individuals send messages that they aren’t interested in talking with others
• Along with suburbanization came the decentralization-‐some say-‐the demise of American cities
- • A major problem is the lack of affordable housing: – The lack of public assistance.
- – Increasing prices.
- – Slow wage growth.
- – Limited inventory of affordable apartments and houses.
- • Other contributors to the problem:
- – Discrimination and prejudice – Central city residents less likely to own a home than suburban residents with the same income.
- – Along with the increase in homeownership rates there has been a decline in home affordability.
- – Minorities are more likely to be denied home loans, even if they have similar financial, employment and neighborhood backgrounds.