• Durkheim: Society changed from mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity.
– Mechanical solidarity
-‐ members in small simple societies united through a set of common values, beliefs and customs and a simple division of labor.
– Organic solidarity -‐
the result of increasing industrialization and the growth of large complex societies, where individuals are linked through a complex division of labor.
• As a result of industrialization, social bonds which unite us will eventually weaken.
- • Industrialization and urbanization have been functional, creating a more efficient, interdependent and productive society, but have also been problematic. – With weakening of social bonds and an absence of norms, society begins to lose its ability to function effectively.
- – As social bonds weaken, so does sense of obligation or duty to one another.
- – Urbanization can lead to social problems such as crime, poverty, violence, and deviant behavior.
- – Solutions -‐ reinforcing or recreating social bonds through social institutions or instituting societal changes through political or economic initiatives.