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The War on Drugs
• A war with “no rules, no boundaries, no end” has been waged for 40 years.
- • Since 1980s aggressive law enforcement strategies and criminal justice policies have been adopted.
- – Federal offenders must serve at least 87% of their sentence.
- – Mandatory minimums based on type and quantity of drugs.
• Tougher sentencing has failed to decrease availability of drugs or drug use.
• Uniform Crime Report -‐ 1,702,537 drug arrests made in 2008 (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2009).
Sociological perspectives on drug abuse
- • Biological and psychological theories say the causes of alcohol or drug abuse are within the individual.
- – Abuse is genetic or inherited.
- – If this is true then there is little a person can do to escape their abuse
• These perspectives cannot explain the social or structural determinants of drug abuse
Functionalist Perspective (Drug Abuse)
• Argue that society provides us with norms or guidelines on alcohol and drug use.
- • A set of social norms identify the appropriate use of drugs and alcohol.
- – Prescription drugs have medical function.
- – Alcohol in moderation for celebration, health benefits.
- • Society also provides norms regarding the excessive use of drugs
- – College students share perception that excessive college drinking is a cultural norm.
- • Functionalists use Durkheim’s theory of anomie to explain drug abuse.
- – Lacking norms to control behavior, people pursue self-destructive behaviors like alcohol abuse.
- – When people are in situations where they feel isolated and unsure what is expected of them they may experience high levels of stress which may lead to deviant behaviors, including drug abuse.
• Society can be the source of role strain-‐
when individuals lack sufficient resources to deal with demanding social situations or circumstances
Conflict Perspective-Chapter Twelve: Alcohol and Drug Abuse
• Conflict theorists argue that strategic decisions have determined which drugs are illegal and which are not.
• Powerful political and business interest groups manipulate images of drugs.
– Heroin, opium, and marijuana were legal in the late 18th and early 19th centuries but public opinion and law changed when their use was linked to ethnic minorities and crime.
Feminist Perspective Chapter Twelve: Alcohol and Drug Abuse
• Feminist perspective -‐ experiences unique to women, minority ethnic groups, gay and lesbian populations, and other marginalized groups were ignored until the 1970s.
• There has been increasing recognition of gender-‐specific and gender-‐sensitive treatment models.
– Example -‐ separate women’s treatment programs.
Interactionist Perspective Chapter Twelve: Alcohol and Drug Abuse
- • Interactionists argue that drug abuse is learned from others.
- – Theory of differential association explains how we learn specific behaviors and norms from the groups we have contact with.
• The interactionist perspective also addresses how individuals or groups are labeled “abusers” and how society responds to them.
What is drug abuse?
• Drug abuse -‐ the use of any drug or medication for a reason other than which it was intended or in a manner other than directed which can lead to clinically significant impairment or distress.
• Drug addiction -‐ physical and/or psychological dependence on a drug or medicaBon.
• Alcohol is the most abused drug in the United States
- • 4 symptoms or alcoholism-‐
- 1. Craving
- 2. Loss of control
- 3. Physical dependence
- 4. Tolerance
• Alcohol use is related to a wide range of adverse health and social consequences, both acute (traffic deaths or other injuries) and chronic (stroke, alcohol dependence, liver damage)
The Role of Individual, Cultural , and Structural Factors in Minority Group Drinking Patterns:
• Groups have different sets of norms and values regulating drinking.
- • Alcoholism among ethnic minorities can be attributed to three different sources of stress:
- – Acculturative stress – comes from leaving their homeland and adapting to a new country
– Socioeconomic stress -‐ comes from feeling disempowered because of social and economic inequalities in U.S. society
– Minority stress -‐ tension that minorities encounter because of racism
Factors That Put Women at Risk
- • Risk for drinking increases with
- – the experience of negative affective states.
- • Depression or loneliness.
- • Negative life events such as physical or sexual abuse.
- • Women’s risk is decreased by:
- – women are socialized to abstain from alcohol use or to drink less than men.
- – Women not Participating in the labor force may have less access to alcohol than men do.
- – women’s roles as wife and mother may also discourage alcohol intake.
Youth and Alcohol
• People who begin drinking before age 15 are 4 times more likely to develop alcohol dependence than people who begin at 20 or older.
• Adolescents who use alcohol are at higher risk for social, medical and legal problems.
• The rate of fatal crashes among alcohol involved drivers aged 16 to 20 is more than twice the rate for alcohol involved drivers age 21 or older.
• Underage alcohol use is more likely to kill young people than all illegal drugs combined. Tobacco and Nicotine
• Tobacco is the world’s number one drug problem, killing more people than all other drugs combined.
• According to the World Health Organization, by 2010, 10 million people per year worldwide will die of diseases caused by cigarette smoking.
• Cigarette smoking is the most prevalent form of nicotine addiction, the most frequently used addictive drug in the United States
• 71 million Americans reported use of tobacco products in 2007
- • Compared to nonsmokers, adolescent smokers
- – Have more stressful environments.
- – More academic problems.
- – Poorer coping skills.
- • Is associated with
- – Disruptive home environment.
- – Parental and peer smoking.
- – Low social support from family and friends. – Conflict with parents.
- – Stressful life events
• The most commonly used illicit drug.
• 2.45 percent of the world’s population consumes Marijuana
• A favorite drug among youth and adolescents
• The major active chemical in marijuana is THC, also the main ingredient in medications used to treat nausea in chemotherapy patients and stimulate appetite in AIDS patients.
• Can impair short-‐term memory, judgment, and other cognitive functions
• A highly addictive central nervous system stimulant that can be injected, snorted, smoked or ingested orally.
• The most prevalent synthetic drug manufactured in the U.S.
• Approximately 5 percent Americans ages 12 or older reported methamphetamine use at least once during their lifetimes
• Chronic use can cause violent behavior, anxiety, confusion, and insomnia, psychotic delusions.
• Long term use of the drug can lead to brain damage, similar to damage associated with Alzheimer’s disease, stroke or epilepsy
• A strong central nervous stimulant and can be snorted, smoked or injected.
• Adults 18 to 25 years old have a higher rate of use than any other age group.
• 2.4 million Americans were current cocaine users in 2005
• Cocaine initiation is more likely to occur among adults rather than youths under 18.
• Complications include cardiovascular disease, respiratory effects, neurological effects and gastrointestinal complications
The Problems of Drug Abuse Crime and Violence
• In 2005 more than two thirds of jail inmates were found to be dependent on or to abuse alcohol or drugs.
• Half of all convicted jail inmates were under the influence of drugs or alcohol at the time of their offense
• Alcohol has been associated with: – intimate partner violence. – a cause and a consequence of child abuse.
• Drug abuse cost American businesses $81 billion in lost productivity, $37 billion due to premature death and $44 billion due to illness. Alcohol abuse contributed to about 86% of the costs.
- • Problem drinking or drug use at work has been linked to
- – The quality and organization of work.
- – Drinking subcultures at work.
- – The safety of the workplace.
- – Repetitive tasks.
- – dangerous working conditions
Drug Use at the Workplace Problem Drinking among Teens and Young
• National Survey on Drug Use and Health reported that the highest prevalence of binge drinking was for young adults ages 18 to 25 (45.9%)
• Binge drinking among college students has been called a major U.S. public health concern
- • Attempts to explain the behavior through various sociological perspectives have been limited:
- – Theories identify drinking as part of the social learning process: addressing the role of peer groups, students’ attitudes and perceptions as well as the social construction of drinking norms
Policy and Social Action Federal Programs Three U.S. offices: the NIAAA, the NIDA and the ONDCP
– National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA): established in 1970 to address alcohol as public health concern.
– National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) :established in 1974 for research, treatment, prevention, training services and data collection on the nature and extent of drug abuse.
– Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP): established in 1988 to set national priorities, comprehensive research based strategies, and certify federal drug control budgets.
Extensive use of illegal drugs continues despite these Federal efforts. Other efforts:
• Decriminalization -‐ keeping criminal penalties but reducing their severity or removing some kinds of behavior from inclusion under the law (e.g., eliminating bans on the use of drug paraphernalia).
• Legalization -‐ suggests removing drugs from the control of the law entirely
• Supporters of legalization argue
- – Current laws & enforcement initiatives failed
- – Arrest & incarceration doesn’t alleviate the drug problem
- – Drug crimes are actually victimless crimes
- – Legalization will reduce crime and violence, and improve the quality of life in inner cities.
- – Heath risks can be diminished by providing clean and high-‐quality substances
- – Banning drugs is a violation of civil liberties
• Drug legalization is generally opposed by the medical and public health community who argues that
– Most research shows drugs are harmful to an individual’s health.
– Drug use is a significant factor in the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV.
– Drug users are more likely to engage in risky behaviors and in criminal activity.
– We would see increases in drug use and addiction, drug-‐related crimes, and costs related to drug treatment and criminal justice.
• Harm Reduction Approach
– Suggests that “managing drug misuse is more appropriate than attempting to stop it all together” (Inciardi, 1999:3).
- – Emphasizes
- • Treatment, rehabilitation, and education.
- • Changes in drug policies. • HIV/AIDS-‐related interventions.
- • Broader drug treatment options.
- • Counseling and clinical case management for those who want to continue using drugs.
- • Ancillary interventions (housing, healing centers, advocacy groups).
**Punishment or Treatment-Drug Abuse
- • Conflict and symbolic interaction theories suggest, drug laws are not enforced equally.
- – Most illicit drug users are White, but Blacks constitute about 80-‐90 % of all people imprisoned on drug charges.
- – Drug enforcement usually targets urban and poor neighborhoods.
- – Society treats middle-‐ or upper-‐class drug use as a personal crisis and lower-‐class drug use as criminal.
- – Tougher drug laws placed the drug war into the hands of law enforcement and courts.
- – While federal policy seems unlikely to change in the near future, several states are reexamining the way they deal with drug offenders
Individual approaches -Drugs
• Programs focus on treating the individual and his/her addiction:
– Behavioral treatment -‐ counseling, support groups, family therapy or psychotherapy.
– Medication therapy -‐ maintenance treatment for heroin addicts, may be used to suppress drug withdrawal symptoms and craving.
Drug Treatment and Prevention Programs
- • 3 prevention models produced the most favorable outcomes in binge drinking prevention efforts.
- – Student participation and involvement, such as volunteer services, advisory boards, or task forces to discourage alcohol or other drug (AOD) use or abuse.
– Educational and informational processes, such as AOD instruction in classes, bulletin boards and displays, and resource centers.
– Efforts directed at the larger structural environment; changing the campus regulatory environment and developing AOD free alternative programming.
• Drug Free Communities Act (1997) -‐The program supports coalitions that rely on mentoring, parental involvement, community education, and school based programs for drug prevention and intervention.
• Community Anti-‐Drug Coalitions of America -‐ nonprofit organizations that provide technical assistance and training to community-‐based coalitions.
Crime, felonies and Misdemeanors
Crime -‐ any behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable by fine, jail, or other negative sanctions.
• Felonies -‐ serious offenses which include murder, rape, robbery and aggravated assault, which are punishable by more than a year’s imprisonment or death.
• Misdemeanors -‐ minor offenses, such as traffic violations, that are punishable by a fine or less than a year in jail.
• Theories on Crime: Biological, Psychological, Sociological
– Biological theories – focus on how individuals are biologically predisposed to criminal behavior.
– Psychological theories – focus on individual personality development, moral development, or mental disorders
– Sociological theories – focus on why crime rates vary between urban and rural areas, different neighborhoods, or social or economic groups.
- • Criminal behavior is normal and inevitable.
- – Crime is functional:
- • it separates acceptable from non-‐acceptable behavior in society.
- – Society and its rules are what make us human:
- • Without any social regulation, humans are able to pursue their own desires (even criminal ones).
- – Anomie: a state of normlessness: a structural condition where there is no or little regulation of behavior, which leads to deviant or criminal behavior.
• Robert Merton’s strain theory .
–We are socialized to attain traditional material and social goals.
–When opportunities are blocked due to discrimination, social position, or talent we experience anomie.
– This leads to crime.
– Criminal activity would decline if economic conditions improve
• Agnew’s Expanded Strain Theory
– three types of social-‐psychological sources of strain
- – three types of social-‐psychological sources of strain
- – failure to achieve positively valued outcomes because of individual inadequacies due to ability or skill
- – removal of positive or desired stimuli from the individual
- – Confrontation with negative action (or stimuli) by others
• Provides insight into criminal offending differences by gender, class, race/ethnicity, communities and over the life course, as well as situational variations in crime
Social Control .
• Social control theorists ask why someone doesn’t commit crime.
- • Four elements control behavior:
- – Attachments-‐relationships with others
- – Commitment-‐acceptance of conventional goals and means
- – Involvement-‐participation in conventional activities
- – Beliefs-‐acceptance of conventional values and norms
• Criminal laws do not exist for our good; they exist to preserve the interests and power of specific groups.
• Criminal justice decisions are discriminatory and designed to sanction offenders based on their minority or subordinate group.
• While the powerful are able to resist criminal labels, they seem to stick to the powerless – the poor, youth, and minorities.
Feminist Perspective --Crime
• Focuses on how women’s criminal experiences are different from men, and also from each other based on race, ethnicity, class, age and sexual orientation.
- • Gender inequality theories have been presented as explanations of female crime.
- – Patriarchal power relations shape gender differences in crime, pushing women into criminal behavior through role entrapment, economic marginalization, victimization, or as a survival response.
Interactionist Perspective --Crime
• Interactionists examine the process that defines certain individuals and acts as “criminal”.
– Labeling theory -‐ it isn’t the criminal or his/her act that is important, but the audience that labels the person or act as “criminal.”
• Race and class matter in our perception of crime.
• Differential association theory
**Sources of Crime Statistics •
- Primary source of crime data is collected by the FBI.
- – Uniform Crime Report (UCR):
- • Reports two categories of crimes -‐ index crimes ( murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, car theft, arson and larceny) and non-‐index crimes (all others).
• Problems with the UCR – The data only reflects reported crimes.
• Estimates suggest that only 3 to 4 percent of crimes are actually discovered by police (Kappeler, Blumberg, and Po6er 2000).
• National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS or NCS) identifies crime victims, regardless if the crime was reported or not.
• Comparing results of the NCVS and UCR suggests the number of crimes commi6ed is actually higher than the number of crimes reported, suggesting that the UCR may not be an adequate measure of violent crime.
**Types of Crime Violent crime
• Actions which involve force or the threat of force: aggravated assault, murder, rape, and robbery.
• Except for rape/sexual assault, males have higher victimization rates than females.
• Blacks have had the highest violent crime victimization rates since 1973.
• Often explained by structural factors, such as neighborhood poverty, unemployment, social isolation, and economic disadvantage.
• Younger people more likely to experience violent crime
•Taking money or property from another without force or the threat of force against the victims.
• Makes up about 3/4 of all crime in the U.S.
• In 2008, there were an estimated 17.5 million property crimes Property Crime
• Juvenile status offender - a juvenile who has violated a law that only applies to persons 7 to 17, like cutting school or buying and consuming alcohol.
- • Delinquency often explained by the absence of strong bonds to society or lack of social controls.
- – Most juvenile crime is commi6ed by males but rates for females are increasing.
- – Almost half of all juvenile arrests involved larceny-‐theft, simple assault, drug abuse violation, disorderly conduct, or liquor law violation.
- – Black youth were overrepresented in juvenile arrests given their proportion of the juvenile offender population.
**White Collar Crime -‐ “a crime commi6ed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation.” – high social status and respectability. – Motivation-‐financial or economic gain. – Occur in a particular organization or business. • It is estimated that white collar crimes cost taxpayers more than all other types of crime. • Cybercrime -‐internet fraud and abuse including: - Identity the%, online credit card fraud schemes, the% of trade secrets, sales of counterfeit software, and computer hacking. – most widespread form of white-‐collar crime.
-‐ “a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation.”
– high social status and respectability.
- – Motivation-‐financial or economic gain.
- – Occur in a particular organization or business.
• It is estimated that white collar crimes cost taxpayers more than all other types of crime.
- • Cybercrime -‐internet fraud and abuse including:
- - Identity theft, online credit card fraud schemes, the% of trade secrets, sales of counterfeit software, and computer hacking.
- – most widespread form of white-‐collar crime.
• Some individuals, by virtue of their social group or social behavior, are more prone than others to become victims.
• Victimization rates are substantially higher for the poor, the young, males, blacks, single people, renters, and central city residents.
• Black males have the highest rate of violent victimization, while white females have the lowest.
• Homicide is the leading cause of death of black males between the ages of 15 and 24 and is the second leading cause of death for Latino males in the same age group.
• Despite declining crime rates, prison populations are increasing.
- • Mandatory sentencing, especially for nonviolent drug offenders, is a key reason.
- – Drug offenders now make up more than half of all federal prisoners.
- • Some argue that the system is intended to rehabilitate offenders and prevent them from committing crime again but recidivism rates show lack of success.
- – Among 300,000 prisoners released in 1993, 67.5% were rearrested within three years.
Community, Policy, and Social Action
**The Department of Justice (DOJ)
• Leads the federal justice system.
• Led by Attorney General of the United States, and is comprised of 39 separate component organizations.
• Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Programs
• Attempts to provide national leadership, coordination, and resources to prevent and respond to juvenile delinquency and victimization.
• Sponsors more than 15 programs targeting juveniles and their communities.
**The New American Prison:
– Prison Litigation Reform Act -‐
• To reduce the costs correctional agencies, the idea of private correctional institutions has gained momentum.
- • Private correctional institutions save tax payers’ money, providing more services with fewer resources.
- – Savings are likely to come from lower wages and/or benefits, fewer staff, or more efficient use of staff.
- – Prison Litigation Reform Act -‐ prisoners must exhaust all internal remedies before filing federal lawsuits to challenge the conditions or report civil rights violations. Has made it extremely difficult for valid complaints to be heard.
Cities and Suburbs
• Urban areas are examples of economic and social progress, but are also characterized by poverty, crime, crowding, pollution and collapsing infrastructures.
• Opportunities and resources are unevenly distributed -‐ some neighborhoods have safer streets, better services, and offer a better quality of life than others Urban sociology
- • Urban sociology -‐ examines the social, poli;cal and economic structures and their impact within an urban settng.
- – Sociologists in the 1920’s (University of Chicago) examined the city and the impact of city life and its problems on its residents, providing the basis for urban study.
- – Initially took a functionalist approach, comparing a city to a biological organism.
- – Human Ecology -‐ the study of the relationship between individuals and their physical environment and population dynamics
- – Community studies and ethnographies
**Urban Sociology includes the study of:
• Demography -‐ the study of the size, composition, and distribution of human populations.
- • Analyzes the changes and trends in the population beginning with two fundamental facts
- – we are born and then we die.
- – Migration
- – the movement of individuals from one area to another.
- – Domestic migration -‐ the movement of people within a country
**The Processes of Urbanization and Suburbanization
• Urbanization -‐ the process by which a population shifts from rural to urban.
• Took off in the later half of the 19th century.
- • As industrial economy grew, people were drawn by work in factories and mills.
- – Helped by emigration of Europeans and the migration of Southern rural blacks and whites.
- – Overurbanization -‐ an excess population is concentrated in an urban area that lacks the capacity to provide basic services and shelter.
• Now a global concern for developing nations
After WW II, the U.S. experienced Suburbanization
–the outward expansion of central cities into suburban areas and
– Population shifts -‐ from the Snowbelt (industrial regions of the North and Midwest) to the Sunbelt (South and Southwest) and from rural to metropolitan areas.
– Facilitated by new housing laws and the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956.
• Urban population
• Urbanized area
• Metropolitan statistical area
• Urban population -‐ an area with 2,500 or more individuals.
• Urbanized area -‐ a densely populated area with 50,000 or more residents.
• Metropolitan statistical area -‐ a densely populated area with 100,000 or more.
- • Population composition -‐ the biological and social characteristics of a population
- .– Affected by changes in the fertility, mortality and migration rates.
• Ethnic composition of communities also has an impact on social and human services.
- • Age distribution -‐ distribution of individuals by age.
- – Provides a community with direction in its social and economic planning, assessing its education, health, housing and employment needs.
Functionalist Perspective: industrialization and urbanization
• Durkheim: Society changed from mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity.
– Mechanical solidarity
-‐ members in small simple societies united through a set of common values, beliefs and customs and a simple division of labor.
– Organic solidarity -‐
the result of increasing industrialization and the growth of large complex societies, where individuals are linked through a complex division of labor.
• As a result of industrialization, social bonds which unite us will eventually weaken.
- • Industrialization and urbanization have been functional, creating a more efficient, interdependent and productive society, but have also been problematic. – With weakening of social bonds and an absence of norms, society begins to lose its ability to function effectively.
- – As social bonds weaken, so does sense of obligation or duty to one another.
- – Urbanization can lead to social problems such as crime, poverty, violence, and deviant behavior.
- – Solutions -‐ reinforcing or recreating social bonds through social institutions or instituting societal changes through political or economic initiatives.
Conflict and Feminist Perspectives--industrialization and urbanization
• Critical political-‐economy or socio-‐spatial perspective -‐ uses a conflict perspective to focus on how cities are formed on the basis of racial, gender or class inequalities.
• Cities are shaped by powerful actors working within capitalistic structure.
• Social problems are natural to this system, rising from the unequal distribution of power between politicians versus taxpayers, the rich versus the poor, or the homeowner versus the renter.
Feminist Perspectives--industrialization and urbanization
• Feminist urbanists argue for development of theory and research which acknowledge the role of women in urban structures.
• Theories about urbanization have taken a gender blind approach.
• Feminist theory on patriarchy can help us understand ways cities reproduce and challenge patriarchy and the problems this creates.
• Living conditions of lower income, inner city women have been affected by the economic restructuring of cities and the patterns of downtown development.
Interactionist Perspective industrialization and urbanization .
• A city’s economic, personal and intellectual relationships can’t be defined or confined by its physical space, they are as extensive as the interactions between its residents.
• A city represents an opportunity for individuals to find self expression, while being connected with fellow city dwellers.
• The way a city is constructed might actually interfere with your social interaction with others.
• Urban communities are segregated by income, race/ ethnicity, or immigrant status, which contributes to our isolation, physically and through meanings we attach to these different neighborhoods
• Symbolic Interactionists
• Symbolic Interactionists have noted that urban dwellers are able to create a “public privacy” while living in a demanding urban world.
• Using props like the newspaper or an iPod, individuals send messages that they aren’t interested in talking with others
• Along with suburbanization came the decentralization-‐some say-‐the demise of American cities
- • A major problem is the lack of affordable housing: – The lack of public assistance.
- – Increasing prices.
- – Slow wage growth.
- – Limited inventory of affordable apartments and houses.
- • Other contributors to the problem:
- – Discrimination and prejudice – Central city residents less likely to own a home than suburban residents with the same income.
- – Along with the increase in homeownership rates there has been a decline in home affordability.
- – Minorities are more likely to be denied home loans, even if they have similar financial, employment and neighborhood backgrounds.
• Household Crowding
– Interior residential density -‐ the number of individuals per room in a dwelling.
– Crowding -‐ when there is more than one person per room in the household.
– Children from more crowded homes have greater behavioral problems in the classroom.
– Housing quality has been associated with morbidity from infectious diseases, chronic illnesses, injuries, poor nutrition, and mental disorders.
– People of color and those with low incomes are disproportionately exposed to substandard housing.
– New homeless are likely to be:
– The number of homeless is at least in the hundreds of thousands, not counting those who live with relatives or friends.
– New homeless are likely to be:
• Female • Ethnic minority • In their twenties or thirties • Unemployed • With no or low monthly incomes.
• Pre mid-‐1970s, the majority of the homeless were older, single males with substance abuse or physical or mental problems
• Since the mid-‐1970s, however, the increasing number of homeless men, women, and families indicates that more than individual disabilitiies or personal characteristics are causing homelessness.
- • Studies indicate that family homelessness in the 1980s and 1990s was primarily attributable not to individual deficits but to:
- – The increased number of the poor, especially minority, single, female-‐headed households.
- – The lack of affordable low-‐income housing units.
• The U.S. Conference of Mayors (2006) identified several interrelated causes for homelessness:
– Mental illness and the lack of needed services – Lack of affordable housing – Substance abuse and the lack of needed services – Low-‐paying jobs – Domestic violence – Prisoner reentry – Unemployment – Poverty Other Urban Issues
-‐ the process of neighborhood change which results in the replacement of lower income residents with higher income ones.
– A “double edged sword” some point to increasing real estate values, tax revenues, and commercial activity but the most contentious by product is the involuntary displacement of low income residents.
• Urban sprawl
– When the spread of development outpaces population growth.
– Began with land developments after World War II.
- – Creates four conditions:
- • Population widely dispersed in low density developments.
- • Rigidly separated homes, shops, and workplaces.
- • A network of roads marked by huge blocks and poor access.
- • A lack of well-‐defined activity centers, such as downtowns or town centers.
Commuting • On average, an American worker’s daily commute is about 24 minutes (one-‐way commute time).
• As sprawl increases, so do the number of miles traveled, number of vehicles owned per household, traffic fatality rates, air pollution , and eventually, our risk of asthma, obesity, and poor health.
Community, Policy, and Social Action • Department of Housing and Urban Development
– federal agency responsible for addressing the nation’s housing needs and improving and developing the nation’s communities.
- – Created in 1965 – Part of Lyndon Johnson’s War on Poverty.
- – Enforces fair housing laws
- – Administers programs to provide a decent, safe and sanitary environment for every American.
- – has been a major player in:
- • influencing land use decisions in urban areas
- • spurring economic growth and development in distressed communities.
• Renewal Communities, Empowerment Zones, and Enterprise Communities
– Program brings communities together through partnerships to attract the social and economic investment necessary for sustainable economic and community development.
- • Creating sustainable communities
- – Since the early 60s, thousands of public-‐private partnerships have been formed to work for economic development, educational improvement, environmental protection, health care, social issues and other issues critical to communities.
• Urban Revitalization Demonstration Program -‐ HOPE VI
– Program grants fund demolition of distressed public housing and rehabilitation or new construction. – Has been criticized for worsening housing situations since all demolished units are not replaced and not all residents return.