Exercise 27 - Endocrine

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lonelygirl
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274241
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Exercise 27 - Endocrine
Updated:
2014-05-13 15:22:44
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Biology 103A
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  1. thyroid gland
    • to control the rate of body metabolism and cellular oxidation
    • Stimulus Type: 
    • Stimulus: thyroid-stimulating hormone
    • Hormones Released: thyroid hormone (contains thyroxine T4 and triiodothryonine T3) and calcitonin
    • General targets: most body cells
    • Effects: every cell in the body
  2. parafollicular cells
    produces calcitonin, which decreases blood calcium levels in kidney and bone

    • Bone: Calcitonin suppresses resorption of bone by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, a cell type that "digests" bone matrix, releasing calcium and phosphorus into blood.
    • Kidney: Calcium and phosphorus are prevented from being lost in urine by reabsorption in the kidney tubules. Calcitonin inhibits tubular reabsorption of these two ions, leading to increased rates of their loss in urine.
  3. colloid
    serves as a reservoir of materials for thyroid hormone production
  4. follicular cells
    produce iodine containing thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) to produce the hormones
  5. islets of Langerhans
    produces glucagon-synthesizing alpha cells to make glucagon when blood glucose falls too low and insulin-synthesizing beta cells to regulate of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism
  6. zona glomerulosa
    mineralocorticoids to help control the balance of minerals and water in the blood
  7. zona fasciculata
    glucocorticoids
  8. zona reticularis
    gonadocorticoids
  9. medulla
    epinephrine and norepinephrine
  10. anterior pituitary gland
    • composed of glandular tissue
    • secrete growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follcle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin

    • GH and Prolactin are produced by acidophil cells (reddish brown-stained)
    • TSH, ACTH, FSH, and LH are produced by basophil cells (deep-blue granules)
  11. posterior pituitary gland
    composed of largely neural tissue such as pituicytes and nerve fibers and stores oxytocin and ADH which are secreted by neuronal cell bodies of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei in the hypothalamus

    • How they are sent to posterior pituitary gland
    • Axon terminals in the posterior pituitary release these hormones "on demand" in response to action potentials that travel down the axons of these same hypothalamic neurons
  12. oxytocin (Peptide)
    stimulates uterine contractions and initiates labor, and initiates milk ejection

    stimulated by impusles from hypothalamic neurons in response to cervical/uterine stretching and suckling of infant at breast

    inhibited by lack of appropriate neural stimuli
  13. anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) (Peptide)
    stimulate kidney tubule cells to reabsorb water

    stimulated by impulses from hypothalamic neurons in response to increased blood solute concentration or decreased blood volume; also stimulated by pain, some drugs, low blood pressure

    inhibited by adequate hydration of the body and by alcohol

    • If low, diabetes insipidus
    • If high syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)
  14. growth hormone (GH) (Protein)
    stimulates growth (liver, muscle, bone, cartilage, and other tissues: anabolic hormone; stimulates somatic growth; mobilizes fat; spares glucose. Growth-promoting effects mediated directly by IGFs

    stimulated by growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) release, which is triggered by low blood levels of GH as well as by a number of a secondary triggers including hypoglycemia, increases in blood levels of amino acids, low levels of fatty acids, exercise ando ther types of stressors

    Inhibited by feedback inhibition exerted by GH and IGFs, and by hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and emotional deprivation via either increased GHIH (somatostatin) or decreased GHRH released

    • If low, pituitary dwarfism in children
    • If high, gigantism in children, acromegaly in adutls

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