Where are red blood cells made and what is their function?
Made in the bone marrow and stored in the spleen. The main function of red blood cells is to transport O2 and CO2.
Why is hemoglobin important?
It has the ability to pick up O2 where there is a lot of it, and release it where it is in short supply.
What two factors play a major role in determining when O2 is picked up or released by hemoglobin?
Concentration of O2
Acidity of fluid
What are white blood cells/leukocytes responsible for?
Protecting the body from disease-causing agents or pathogens.
What is an antigen?
A foreign substance that triggers the formation of antibodies.
What is an antibody?
A protein produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen, which helps in defending the body against foreign invaders.
What are two of the most important disease-fighting white blood cells?
Macrophages and lymphocytes
What are macrophages?
White blood cells that eat and digest pathogens through phagocytosis. Involved in the body's innate immune response.
What are lymphocytes?
White blood cells that recognize and fend off specific pathogens. Involved in the body's acquired immune response.
Define innate immune response.
General response where body's resistance to a pathogen is inborn.
Define acquired immune response.
Specific response where body fights specific pathogens.
What are the two groups of lymphocytes involved in the acquired immune response?
B and T cells.
What do B cells produce?
They produce antibodies which attach to a specific antigen located on the surface of the pathogen, which make it easier for T cells and macrophages to destroy the pathogen.
What do T cells do?
They either attack antigens directly (killer T cells) or help with the production of the antibodies (helper T cells).
What is the function of platelets?
They help clot blood and help protect the body from excessive blood loss after injury.
What protein forms a blood clot?
Blood enters the heart through the _____ and leaves the heart through the ______.
The 2 AV valves allow blood to do what?
Flow from the atria to the ventricles.
In the right side of the heart, what is the AV valve called?
The tricuspid valve.
In the left side of the heart, what is the AV valve called?
What are the two types of semi-lunar valves?
The pulomary semi-lunar valve and the aortic semi-lunar valve.
What does the pulmonary semi-lunar valve do?
Allows blood to move from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries.
What does the aortic semi-lunar valve do?
Allows blood to move from the left ventricle into the aorta.
What causes the "LUB" sound?
The AV valves closing.
What causes the "DUB" sound?
The semi-lunar valves closing.
Define sinoatrial node.
Commonly known as the pace maker, it is a bundle of specialized heart tissue located in the upper wall of the right atrium. It controls the rhythmic pumping of the heart at a rate of approximately 70 beats per minute.
What is an electrocardiograph?
A device used to detect the heart's electrical activity.
Define cardiac output.
The amount of blood pumped by the heart.
What two factors affect cardiac output?
Heart beat (# of beats per minute)
Stroke volume (amount of blood forced out of the heart with each heart beat)
Formula for cardiac output?
Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate
Define blood pressure.
THe pressure of blood against the wall of a blood vessel.
Define systolic pressure.
The blood pressure that is reached when the left ventricle contracts.
Define diastolic pressure.
The blood pressure that is reached when the ventricles are relaxed.