EDU223AF Sped Assessment MIDTERM

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  1. ch 1.
    Identify the assessment skills needed by special      educators.
    • C.A.E.D.R.
    • Collect Data: informal assessments, records, benchmarks, standardized tests.
    • Analyze Scrutinize the data
    • Evaluate Appraise the student’s development (cognitive/emo/academic) to understand the student’s history, diagnosis, strengths & weaknesses.
    • Determine Disability- in what areas does the student have achievement gaps and need remediation?
    • Recommend placement- with respect to LRE and the student’s needs.
  2. ch 1.
    Articulate the purposes for assessment.
    S.E.E. I.Ip.

    • Screening and identification of suspected disabilities
    • Evaluation of strengths, weaknesses, and overall progress
    • Eligibility for special education and diagnosis of the specific nature of the disability
    • IEP development and placement
    • Instructional planning
  3. ch 1.
    Articulate screening and identification of suspected disabilities
    • E.E. I. I. ID.
    • Evaluation of strengths, weaknesses, and overall progress
    • Eligibility for special education and diagnosis of the specific nature of the disability
    • IEP development and placement
    • Instructional planning
    • Identify the guidelines of federal legislation, IDEA, in assessment.
  4. ch 1
    Define the role of assessment for instructional purposes
    • D.D. SARD
    • Determine Scope and Sequence of skills or content to be taught.
    • Decide what instructional behavior to assess. Select an evaluation activity.
    • Administer the evaluation device.
    • Record the student's performance.
    • Determine specific short- and long-range instructional objectives.
  5. ch 2
    1.       Articulate the importance of gathering assessment data from a variety of sources.
    In order to make an accurate eligibility determination we need to gather data from as many sources as possible: standardized tests, interviews, observations, school work, teacher feedback, and parental feedback. Students behave differently across different settings and we want to be sure we have looked at this from as many different angles as possible because we do not want to subject a student to SPED if we can avoid it. We also want to be sure the student is getting the correct interventions whenever possible.
  6. ch 2.
    Identify areas of student behavior to observe during the assessment process.
    • S.V.D.
    • Specific settings- lunch room, specific content area or teacher or room.
    • Variety of settings- see the student in as many different settings as possible not just one room, teacher, or locale.
    • Different times of the day- first thing in the morning, at lunch time, and end of the day.
  7. ch 2
    Describe the role of parents in assessment.
    • P.I.P.
    • PTE- parents must give permission to evaluate
    • Information- parents need to provide as much information as possible.
    • Partners- parents are key partners in their student’s education
  8. ch 3.      
    Articulate the role of tests of intelligence in the assessment process.
    The IQ portion helps evaluators, the team, and the teachers understand the level or the potential of a student’s cognitive functioning or the ability to think. IQ testing is used to determine specific skills, abilities, and knowledge that a child either has or does not have. The IQ portion does not measure how smart a student is!
  9. ch 3
    Compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of the most commonly used tests of intelligence
    The shared strength of both tests is that WISC and RIAS are both rated high for validity and reliability, which means the results are considered accurate and can be repeated. The textbook asserts that the WISC can be “culturally biased” (Pierangelo and Giuliani, 2002, p. 149). I work in a low-income community and we qualify for Title I funding. Our school population is 60% “minority” ethnicities. I worry that any kind of standardized testing we are giving students could have a cultural bias, as most of our families do not reflect dominant culture in most ways. If this bias does exist, then more students of color or low-SES will qualify for SPED than perhaps would qualify if there was no cultural bias.The textbook does not cover the RIAS. However, one weakness I have noted as I have compared test results from previous evaluators while drafting MET paperwork for my students: the RIAS tends to rate students higher in their intellectual abilities than other tests our evaluators have used. Example: we have students who previously scored an 82 on a WISC/WASI evaluation who are now scoring in the 90’s on their cognitive abilities. If it’s true that IQ remains relatively stable, and my students are not necessarily getting “smarter”, then I do worry that the RIAS is rating kids with higher full scale IQ’s at triennial evaluations. It is essential that this information is accurate as we factor in a student’s academic achievement and look for “achievement gaps”; if the RIAS shows there is no longer a gap and we close services on a student, we may be hurting them in the long run.
  10. ch 4.
    Identify two comprehensive academic achievement assessments.
    Woodcock-Johnson - The WJ-III measures reading, writing, and math in with 15 subtests. Strengths: The test has validity, is a multifaceted tool for the assessment of cognitive achievement and scholastic interests, it’s good for a range of academic areas and ages. According to our school psychologist the WJ-III is the most accurate test she has used when evaluating students. Weaknesses: Complex scoring procedures, time consuming to score and interpret data.

    Wechsler Individual Achievement Test- WIAT-2 measures reading, writing, and math in with 9 subtests. The strengths of the test are: it meets regulatory requirements for testing children and adolescents, the manual includes the scope and sequence of objective and how they relate to curricula, the test manual has guidelines for suggestions on IEPs. Weakness: cultural bias, there are concerns with reliability
  11. ch 4.
    Articulate objectives of perceptual processing assessment measures
    • Used when a team suspects discrepancies in the child’s ability to receive and process information.
    • P.M. LPro. P.
    • Determine stronger weaker processing areas.
    • Determine child’s stronger/weaker modality for learning.
    • Determine Learning PROfile.
    • Help determine the placement
  12. ch 4.
    Describe the Woodcock-Johnson-Revised Assessment.
    • D.DAPP
    • Purpose: provides a co-normed set of tests for measuring cognitive abilities and academic achievement
    • For ages: 2.0 – 90+Professionals can use it for:
    • Diagnosis of learning disabilities
    • Determining discrepancies in achievement
    • Assessing growth
    • Planning IEPS
    • Planning  Curriculum 
  13. ch 5
    Distinguish the difference between formal and informal assessments
    Informal assessments can be portfolio reviews, teacher generated trackers or quizzes. Reading inventories are another form of informal assessment. Used to inform teaching.

    Formal  assessments are psychoeducational evaluations or standardized testing. They are often norm-referenced or checked against other students the student’s age.
  14. ch 5.
    Identify when to use a formal and/or informal assessment in the special education process.
    Formal  assessments need to be used when determining eligibility or when measuring the student’s cognitive abilities or academic achievement. These are not normally used to inform instruction or give a “grade” for a class.

    Informal assessments like work samples would be used to show how well the student is performing in class. Reading inventories and the like are often used to progress monitor or to inform instruction.
  15. ch. 5
    Identify terms necessary to interpret a formalized assessment.
    • Norm-Referenced
    • Quantitative
    • Scripted procedures
    • Reliability
    • Validity
  16. ch 6.
    Determine the difference between speech and language
    The area of speech refers to the physical process of making sounds of a language.  

    Language refers to the total system with speech production as one component part.
  17. ch 6.
    Define speech and language as it is identified by IDEA.
    “(11) Speech or language impairment means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.” [34 CFR §300.8(c)(11]
  18. ch 6.
    Outline areas of difficulty for students placed for speech assistance.
    • FAVS
    • Fluency | speech impairments where a child’s flow of speech is disrupted by sounds, syllables, and words that are repeated, prolonged, or avoided and where there may be silent blocks or inappropriate inhalation, exhalation, or phonation patterns; 
    • Articulation/Expressing sounds | speech impairments where the child produces sounds incorrectly (e.g., lisp, difficulty articulating certain sounds, such as “l” or “r”); 
    • Voice | speech impairments where the child’s voice has an abnormal quality to its pitch, resonance, or loudness;

     Semantics/Language | Expressive Communicating ideas and thoughts Receptive language Comprehending questions and following commands
  19. ch 6.
    Compare and contrast formal and informal assessment measures of language.
    Standardized instruments allow educators to compare a specific student's language performance with expected norms to determine if a speech or language deficit exists. Some of the formal language assessments give a comprehensive measure of language functioning while others measure specific areas of receptive and expressive language. Formal language assessments are often used by psychologists and speech and language pathologists to determine the need for special education services.

    Informal measures supplement these tests to provide descriptive information on a student's language ability and to guide instruction. In addition, informal language assessments are used to monitor a student's daily or weekly progress.
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EDU223AF Sped Assessment MIDTERM
edu223af midterm prep
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