ARC Final Exam

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tigre671
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274335
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ARC Final Exam
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2014-05-13 21:10:32
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Final Study Guide
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Study guide for ARC 231 Final
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  1. Pendentives
    • The 4 cornered archway that holds up a dome
    • -Hagia Sophia is an example
  2. Onion Domes
    • The Russian/Alaskan domes
    • -St. Basil's is an example
  3. Features of Byzantine Architecture
    • -Plain exteriors, intricate interiors
    • -Complex interiors
    • -Central plan
    • -Domes/onion domes rest on pendentives
    • -Surfaces have mosaics meant to communicate mysticism of Christianity
  4. Hypostyle Mosque
    • These mosques have square or rectangular plans with an enclosed courtyard and covered prayer hall. Had lots of columns to support them
    • -Allowed for large crowds to gather comfortably in desert climate
    • -Lots of floor space for prayer
    • -Large minarets to effectively tell followers when to pray
    • -The quibla and mihrab remind followers of the direction in which to pray
  5. Qibla Wall
    • Main mosque wall that faces Mecca
    • -Great Mosque at Samarra had this
  6. Mibrab
    • Niche cut into the qiblah (Mecca wall) indicating direction to Mecca
    • -Great Mosque, Samarra had this
  7. Minbar
    • Small area in a mosque where the preacher stands to give sermon
    • -Great Mosque, Samarra had this
  8. Manaret
    • The tower in a mosque where an announcer calls muslims to prayer
    • -Great Mosque Samarra had this
  9. Horseshoe Arch
    • An archway that makes more than a 180 degree circle and resembles a horseshoe
    • -Great Mosque at Cordoba had this
  10. Cruciform Plan
    A cross shaped building
  11. Greek vs. Latin Cross
    • Greek: Plus sign
    • Latin: Typical
  12. Relic and Reliquary
    • -Relic: A biblical artifact usually shown and kept in a reliquary
    • -Reliquary: The object/area in the church where the relic is held
    • -St. Foy had this
  13. Crossing
    • The middle area in the church where the intersect of the cruciform plan occurs
    • -St. Foy had this
  14. Choir
    • Area between the nave and the altar that provides seating for the clergy and choir
    • -St. Foy had this
  15. Ambulatory
    • Area between the choir/aspe and the relic chapels (reliquary) where patrons can walk
    • -St. Foy had this
  16. Transept
    • The sides (smaller sides) of a cross plan church
    • -St. Foy had this
  17. Narthex
    • The entrance hall of a church
    • -Durham Cathedral has this
  18. Bay
    • The space between posts, columns, or buttresses
    • -St. Foy has this
  19. Radiating Chapel
    • Basically the reliquary in a church
    • -St. Foy has this
  20. Aisle
    • The sides of a church where people can walk around in
    • -St. Foy has this
  21. Sexpartile Vault
    • Vaulting with six parts to it
    • -Durham Cathedral has this
  22. Buttress
    • A structure built against or projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall
    • -St. Foy has this
  23. Campanile
    • The bell tower of a church
    • -St. Foy has this
  24. Nave
    • The center hall/main area of the church
    • -St. Foy has this
  25. Baptistery
    • A separate, centrally-planned structure surrounding the baptismal font
    • -San Giovani is an example
  26. Pilgrimage Church
    • A church that is on a pilgrimage route
    • -St. Foy is one
  27. Elements of a Gothic Church
    • -Flying buttressing
    • -Pointed arches
    • -Ribbed Vaulting
    • -Light building form
    • -Verticality
    • -Lots of windows
    • -Chartres Cathedral is one
  28. Rose Window
    • A large and circular and flower pattern-like window on the front of a gothic church
    • -Norte Dame cathedral is an example
  29. Triforium
    • An arched gallery within the thickness of inner wall that stands above the nave of a church. It occurs at or below the clerestory windows
    • -Chartres Cathedral has this
  30. Quadripartite Elevation
    • Nave, gallery, triforium, clerestory
    • -Chartres Cathedral has this
  31. Fan Vaults
    • Gothic style vaulting with many ribs in the shape of a fan
    • -King's College chapel is an example
  32. Christian vs. Byzantine Architecture
    • -Early Christian: Longitudinal and centrally planned churches, cruciform shape, etc.
    • -Byzantine Churches: plain exterior, complex interior, centralized plan, domes on pendentives, mosaics on walls
  33. *Hagia Sophia
    • Istanbul, 532  Architects: Isodorus and Athemios
    • -Large dome that collapsed many times
    • -Cascading domes
    • -4 minarets
    • -Heavy building but dome seems to float
    • -Buttressing on dome
    • -A basilica and central plan hybrid
    • -Plain exterior and nice interior
  34. Palatine Chapel Arguments
    Charlemagne tried to emulate Justinain and Constantine by building a centrally planned chapel (1st floor) yet with a throne room 2nd floor) to combine church and state
  35. Romanesque Churches
    • St. Foy as example
    • -Towers
    • -Semi-circular arches vs. gothic pointed arches
    • -Cross plan
    • -Groin vaulting
    • -Symmetrical plan
    • -Thick walls and heavy building
  36. Romanesque by Region
    • Italy
    • -Freestanding campanile
    • -Projecting aspe (altar)
    • -Small windows
    • -Small relief carvings
    • -Little emphasis on verticality
    • -Crossing often has a dome
    • France
    • -High aspe
    • -Radiating chapels
    • -Windows of increasing size and coupled
    • -Often 3 portals (entrances)
    • Germany
    • -Crossings with an octagonal tower
    • -Aspes at both ends of the church
    • -Portal to the side and richly decorated
    • -Both apses flanked by towers
    • -Wooden roofs common
  37. French Religious Architecture
    • Romanesque
    • -High aspe
    • -Radiating chapels
    • -Windows of increasing size and coupled
    • -Often 3 portals (entrances)
    • Early Gothic
    • -Higher walls
    • -Flying buttresses
    • -Sexpartile vaults
    • -Quadrepartile elevation
    • High Gothic
    • -Lighter building form
    • -Taller buildings
    • -Went from quadripartite to only nave, triforium, and clerestory
    • -4 ribs vs. 6
    • -Higher and more sophisticated flying buttresses
  38. Gothic Cathedrals by Region
    • French
    • -Emphasis on height and verticality
    • -Similar style to one another, unlike English style
    • -3 portals and a rose window
    • -2 large towers on ends of entrance
    • -Some major churches without transepts or aisles
    • English
    • -Extreme length and emphasis on horizontal
    • -Very stylistically diverse
    • -Double transepts
    • -No stylistic unity within individual church
    • -Almost always a tower at the crossing
    • -Richly decorated
    • Italy
    • -Use of contrasting venire
    • -Plan usually symmetrical
    • -Aspe with mosaic
    • -Few and widely spaced columns
    • -Architectural elements usually painted to contrast instead of blend
    • -Dome over crossing
    • -Smaller windows
    • -Freestanding campanile and baptistery
  39. *Great Mosque
    • Cordoba, Spain  8th century
    • -Many many columns in brown and beige
    • -Hypostyle mosque
    • -Like a sea of columns
    • -Columns not all the same because of spolia
    • -Stacking of arches for a high ceiling
    • -Built on top of a church
    • -Horseshoe arches, plaster designs
    • -Was a church, then mosque, and then back to a church
  40. *St. Foy
    • Conques, France 1120 AD
    • -Pilgrimage church
    • -Holds "St. Faith"
    • -Relic was stolen and brought here
    • -Typical Latin cross plan
    • -Single aisle
    • -Buttress
    • -Radiating chapels
    • -Groin vaulting
    • -Nave 68 feet-Radiating chapels stick out of exterior
  41. *Chartres Cathedral
    • Chartres 1194 AD
    • -Pilgramige church
    • -Had Mary's tunic as a relic
    • -Originally had a wooden roof
    • -3 entrances all brought to center
    • -Larger nave
    • -Spoke-like flying buttress
    • -Open ambulatory
    • -Two large (and different) towers
    • -Very open interior plan
    • -First high gothic cathedral
    • -Very tall clerestory windows
  42. *Salisbury Cathedral
    • 1220AD  Salisbury England
    • -404 ft tower (at crossing)
    • -Oldest working clock
    • -Double transepts
    • -Rib vaulting
    • -Octagonal chapter house
    • -Tall (but not vertical) and very decorative
    • -Statues carved into side

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