PSYC106 Midterm 2

Card Set Information

Author:
HollyBergen
ID:
274343
Filename:
PSYC106 Midterm 2
Updated:
2014-05-15 02:31:31
Tags:
Psyc106 physiology
Folders:

Description:
PSYC106 Midterm 2
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user HollyBergen on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. ACh
    • Acetylcholine = a chemical similar to an amino acid
    • Most common treatments for Alzheimer's are meant to stimulate ACh receptors or prolong ACh release.
    • Results in increased arousal.
  2. Adaptation
    • Decreased response to a stimulus as a result of recent exposure to it.
    • Fatigue of receptors.
    • Short term – visual illusions, aftereffects
    • Long term – adaptations to adjust over weeks/months/years to change functions
  3. Afferents
    Axons that brings information INTO a structure.Every sensory neuron is an afferent TO the rest of the nervous system (every motor neuron is an efferent FROM the nervous system)
  4. Analgesia
    • Suppression of pain
    • Adaptive
    • ex WWI found that peoples whose arms chopped off didn't report too much pain, 32% reported no pain!
  5. Aphasia
    • language impairment
    • Damage Broca's area - language production- leads to aphasia
  6. Alexia
  7. Animal model of stroke
    • From paper: Reducing excessive GABA-mediated tonic inhibition promotes
    • functional recovery after stroke
    • Treating: INHIBITION that happens days after stroke
    • Drug L655-GABA-A receptor antagonist
    • Stops inhibition that GABA produces
    • Give 3 days after stroke
  8. Ataxia
  9. A1
    • Auditory Cortex
    • In the Superior Temporal Cortex
    • Active during "auditory imagery"
  10. Basal/apical (apex)
    • Cochlea - Unrolled
    • LOW PITCH
    • have LARGE EFFECT in APEX (not base)
  11. Basal Ganglia
    • A group of subcortical forebrain structures lateral to the thalamus
    • In Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • Tail-like nucleus = Caudate Involved in motor control/functionParkinstons, Huntington's disease affects
    • Learning and remembering HOW to do something, for attention, language, planning & other cognitive functions.
    • Subdivisions exchange info w/other parts of cerebral cortex
  12. BMI
    • Body Mass Index
    • Measure of adult's weight in relation to their height:
    • WEIGHT in kilos divided by square of HEIGHT in meters
    • Obese = BMI of 30+
  13. Broca's Aphasia
    • Post brain damage:
    • Language impairment minor or brief language impairment (NOT only area for language production)
    • aka Nonfluent aphasia
    • Regardless of area of damage
    • May have deficits in comprehension when sentence meaning relies on a complex structure
  14. Capsaicin
    • Chemical found in hot peppers, produces painful burning sensation by releasing substance P
    • High doses damage pain receptors
    • Also used in placebo studies
  15. CART
    • Cocaine & amphetamine related transcript in
    • hypothalamus
    • Molecule that has effects that overlap w/cocaine amphetamines
    • Produces low body wt - & heart issues
    • Only drug to have effects on wt loss
  16. Central Pattern Generator
    • Neural mechanisms in the spinal cord that generate rhythmic patterns of motor output
    • example: mechanisms in wing flapping in birds, fin movements in fish, etc
    • stimulus may ACTIVATE but doesnt CONTROL
    • ex: Cats scratch themselves 3-4x/second. Cells in lumbar of spinal cord generate this rhythm & they will continue to do it if they're isoolated from the brain or muscles are paralyzed
  17. Cochlea
    • "Snail"
    • Contains 3 long fluid-filled channels
    • Scalas: vestibuli, media, tympani
    • Base of cochlea: Oval window - Vibrates - setting fluid in motion in the coclea
    • Hair cells lie b/w the basilar membrane of the cochlea on one side & tectorial membrane on the other
  18. Cortical Barrels
    • Processes whisker information into the brain of rodents
    • Located in somatosensory cortex


  19. 2-DG (deoxyglucose)
    • Old way used in studying audition
    • Old-fashioned imaging: Using 2-DG (2-deoxyglucose) modified form of glucose. Cells think its glucose. Grab when active – but BRAIN CANT USE so it gets stuck in the cells. So can give injection of 2-DG, play sounds – cut open brain & see where 2-DG is to see which cells were active
    • Would need to examine brain POST-MORTEM
  20. Dermatome
    • Area of body connected to particular spinal nerve
    • ex the 3rd thoracic nerve supplies strip of skin just above nipple & underarm
    • Areas of dermatomes map body - massive overlap - 1/3 to 1/2 of area
    • 31 sensory spinal nerves
  21. Diaschisis
    • "To shock throughout"
    • Decreased activity of surviving brain neurons after damage to other neurons
    • Could contribute to behavioral deficits after brain damage, increased stimulation could help
  22. Disinhibition
    Loss of inhibition (resulting in activation?)
  23. Dorsal root ganglion
    • Sensory.
    • Clusters of sensory neurons carrying info into the spinal cord.
    • Long axons go into muscle & spinal cord
    • These axons are AFFERENTS INTO THE CNS
    • (Cell bodies of the motor neurons are inside the spinal cord).
    • Spinal animals: Stimulation of the dorsal root - can bypass the brain
    • Stretch reflex = Spindles excited, AP to dorsal root
  24. Extensors/Flexors
    • Extensor = Muscle that extends (straightens) the limbs
    • Flexor = Muscle that flexes the limbs (bends)
    • EXTRA INHIBITORY NEURON allows them to work together
  25. Cross Extensor Reflex
    • Will want more weight on other leg for support
    • Nail info – wiring – stimulates neurons on SAME SIDE – wiring will cross midline – affects OTHER leg to do the right thing
    • All of this done w/inhibitory neurons to adjust appropriately
  26. Ghrelin
    • Hunger signal/hormone/neurotransmitter
    • Chemical released by the stomach during a period of food DEPRIVATION; also released as a neurotransmitter in the brain, where it stimulates eating
  27. Globus Pallidus
    • Large subcortical structure, part of the basal ganglia
    • Output from the caudate nucleus -> globus pallidus -> mainly to the thalamus -> relays to cerebral cortex
    • Mostly resleases GABA
    • Nuerons here show much spontaneous activity
    • Constantly INHIBITING the thalamus
  28. Glucose
    • Simple sugar
    • Neurons mostly rely on
    • ONE OF ONLY NUTRIENTS THAT CROSS BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (except ketones- fat)
    • The liver makes glucose from many carbs & amino acids & from glycerol- a breakdown product from fats
  29. Insulin & Glucagon Feedback system
    • 1. GLUCOSE levels rise, pancreas releases hormone INSULIN
    • 2. Insulin causes cells to store excess glucose as fats & GYCOGEN
    • 3. Glucose into cells suppresses hunger & decreases eating
    • 4. Decreased eating lowers glucose level
  30. High Insulin feedback system
    • 1. High insulin causes blood glucose to be stored as fats & glycogen
    • 2. Difficult to mobilize stored nutrients
    • 3. Hunger soon after each meal
  31. Diabetic Cycle
    • 1. Low insulin levels
    • 2. Glucose in blood cannot enter cells to be stored or use
    • 3. Excrete glucose in urine, cells are starving
  32. Touch input into the CNS
    • Info from touch receptor below head enters spinal cord
    • Passes toward brain through 31 spinal nerve (each have sensory & motor component)
    • Each spinal nerve connects to a dermatome
    • Touch pathway: light & deep.
    • Pain pathway: diff axons for sharp, slow burning, painfully cold
    • Temperature, pain & itch rely on unmyelinated axons
    • Info -> Thalamus -> Somatosensory cortex
  33. Pain information crosses to the ____________ side of the spinal cord, touch information crosses at the ______________
    • contralateral
    • medulla
  34. If person lost touch &  temp sensation AND ability to move region of body w/dermatome
    on LEFT side, most likely injury is a:
    COMPLETE cut through LEFT SPINAL NERVE
  35. Pacinian corpuscle
    • receptors - sense pressure.
    • respond best to sudden displacement/high freq vibrations
    • Onion-looking thing.
  36. 3 main touch senses:
    • 1. Thermoceptors
    • 2. Mechanoceptors
    • 3. Nocioceptors - sense pain
  37. Free nerve endings
    • used to perceive pain, warmth, cold
    • in epidermis layer - near base of hairs & elsewhere
    • Unmylelinated or thinly myelinated
  38. Transduction in Pacinian corpuscle
    • PRESSURE-gated ion channel
    • When pressure applied, ion channels stretch open, allowing sodium INSIDE
    • When sodium IN - AP sent to brain
    • At rest, ion channels closed
  39. Pain & Touch use ____________ pathways INTO the brain
    afferent
  40. Born insensitivity to pain due to:
    • Na (voltage gated sodium channel) is MUTATED on nocioceptors
    • (pain neurons)
  41. Mild pain causes the release of NT ________ . Strong pain causes release of both __________ and ____________
    • glutamate
    • glutamate & substance P
  42. Transduction of pain:
    • Tissue damage -> chemicals activate terminals or make endings sensitive:
    • histamine, prostoglandins, 5ht, serotonin
    • Aspirin works here
    • AP -> dorsal root ganglion -> spinal cord -> contralateral side ->
  43. Periaqueductal gray (PAG)
    • Where opioids work
    • agonists at mu receptors
    • ascending communication pathways - dorsal - sensory - horn of spinal cord
    • descending - pain modulation - ventral - pain signal diminished
  44. How sound waves travel:
    • Pinna (outer ear)-> locates source of sound
    • Pass through auditory canal
    • Strike typmpanic membrane (eardrum) -> vibrates at same frequency
    • Eardrum connects to 3 bones -> oval window (viscus fluid behind window)
    • Inner ear -> Cochlea -> Basilar membrane -> cilia hairs are displaced by vibrations in the fluid
    • The hair cells send AP's to auditory nerve -> into brain
  45. How hair cells turn vibration into AP's:
    • MECHANICALLY GATED
    • Hair cells linked by tip link = molecular springs
    • Attached to door on ion channel
    • Fluid vibrates - hair moves - causes trap door to open - ion rushes in
    • MORE POTASSIUM ON OUTSIDE - rushes in - becomes more positive on inside
  46. Inner vs Outer hair cells
    • Inner:
    • In a row.
    • More important for hearing.
    • Damage here more critical

    • Outer:
    • 3 rows
  47. Basilar Membrane:
    HIGH PITCH (freq)
    more vibration by the _________
    LOW PITCH (freq)
    have LARGE EFFECT _________
    • Base
    • Apex
  48. Auditory pathway into brain:
    • Auditory nerve (cochlear into brain stem)
    • Sound crosses AND same side of brain into cortex (more from opposite side)
    • Inferior colliculus = WHERE sound comes from
    • Thalamus = In MGN medial geniculate nucleus
    • Auditory cortex = A1(temporal) first sound info
  49. Inferior Colliculus
    • "Where" sound info
    • Tonotopic Map Organization
    • Gradient sound - processed along different strips
    • low - high
  50. Primary Auditory Cortex (A1)
    • Different parts respond to different parts of the cochlea - from BASE to APEX
  51. 2 ways we tell where sound comes from:
    • 1. Intensity differences
    • - shadow
    • - where intensity is greater
    • - ILDs = Interaural Loudness Differences

    • 2. Arrival time
    • - brain calculates same sound taking longer to get to 1 ear
    • - ITDs = Interaural Time Differences
  52. Topographic Mapping in ICX
    • bands of cells respond differentially to TIME
  53. Bicepts are used for __________, Tricepts are used for _______________
    • flexion
    • extension
  54. 2 Sensory Receptors that tell brain the status of the muscles:
    • 1. Muscle Spindle
    • - muscle fiber w/nerve endings wrapped around it
    • - gets feedback signals to control & adjust input going in

    • 2. Golgi tendon organ
    • - nerve endings
    • - nerve in tendon, where muscle connects to bone
  55. AP activation when muscle stretched vs muscle contracted:
    • Stretched:
    • - Both receptors excited (spindle & golgi tendon)

    • Contracted:
    • - GOLGI TENDON ACTIVATED ONLY
  56. In the spinal cord, dorsal horn controls _________ info, the ventral horn controls _________ info.
    • Sensory
    • Motor
  57. Interneurons
    • Project to motor neurons
    • Don't directly control muscle but have influences on motor neuron,
    • Important for coordinating diff parts of reflex
  58. In spinal cord: Distal parts (ie fingers) controlled in _______ area, while proximal (closer to body) parts controlled in ______ area (towards center).
    • lateral
    • medial
  59. Interneurons project to ________ __________.
    Muscle neurons project to ___________.
    • Muscle neurons
    • Muscles
  60. Lordosis reflex
    • Female mating rodent reflex
    • spinal autonomy
    • Arches back – butt in air – moves tail – allows male to mount
    • ONLY DOES this during this one part of this cycle
    • Reason: Brain INHIBTS the reflex
    • Hormones – go to brain – hypothalamus – Gets RID OF THE BLOCK that brain
    • exercises on this reflex
  61. Motor Cortex
    • M1 = Primary motor cortex
    • Next to central sulcus
    • Hand & mouth MASSIVELY represented in homonculus
    • Cells here are SENSITIVE TO DIRECTION
  62. Cerebellum
    • IPSILATERAL control = SAME SIDE of body
    • sensitive to alcohol
    • fine coordination
    • Damage affects aim, timing, alternation of movements
    • Can do CONTINUOUS motor activity (since not starting or stopping an action)
    • Damage - Saccades - eye movements - will be many short movements instead of fluid
    • Involved in MOTOR LEARNING

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview