Water Distro 2 set 1

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Water Distro 2 set 1
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2014-05-14 01:27:26
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Water Distro 2 set 1
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  1. The two ingredients necessary to form disinfection by-products are
    natural organic matter and a
    Disinfectant
  2. When calcium ions are removed during a zeolite softening process, they
    are replaced by
    Sodium ions
  3. An atom or a molecule that has developed an electric charge is called
    an
    Ion
  4. The water treatment process that substitutes cations from a regenerating brine solution for unwanted cations in the raw water is known as
    Ion exchange
  5. The periodic procedure required to keep ion
    exchange resins performing properly is
    Regeneration
  6. Nitrate and perchlorate are examples of undesirable water constituents that can be
    removed through the process of
    Ion exchange
  7. Sodium zeolite is used in which of the following treatment processes?
    Ion exchange
  8. An atom or a molecule with one or more additional electrons is called an
    Anion
  9. IN water quality, perchlorate would be classified as
    Anionic
  10. The disease methemoglobinimea is caused by ingestion of the anion
    Nitrate
  11. Chloride, fluoride, nitrate, and perchlorate are examples of
    Anions
  12. Which of the following could not be removed using ion
    exchange?
    Trihalomethanes
  13. The reaction surface upon which ion exchange occurs is called the
    Resin
  14. The waste stream generated during resin regeneration in ion exchange is
    called
    Brine
  15. Which of the following DBPs is normally associated with ozonation?
    Bromate
  16. When chlorine reacts with natural organic matter in the water, it is
    possible to form
    • Disinfection
    • by-products
  17. An increase in which of the following will
    generally result in an increase in DBP levels?

    a.                  
    Pesticides

    b.                 
    Oxygen

    c.                  
    Water Age

    d.                 
    Activated carbon

    e.                  
    Fluoride
    • a.                 
    • Water Age
  18. For most surface waters, removing organic matter from the raw water
    will lead to lower
    Disinfection by-product levels
  19. The currently-regulated DBP that has a single carbon atom is
    THMs
  20. Sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium are examples of
    Cations
  21. The maximum momentary load placed on a water supply system is known as
    Peak demand
  22. The measurement of pressure at multiple points in a distribution system
    can provide a
    • Hydraulic grade
    • line
  23. Elevated storage tanks (on towers) are used primarily to
    Minimize variations in the system water pressures
  24. Clearwell reservoirs are used at treatment plants to provide adequate detention time for
    Disinfection
  25. A means to mitigate water quality deterioration in storage tanks is

    a.                  
    Cycling reservoirs

    b.                 
    Operating at lower storage levels

    c.                  
    Installation of mixers within reservoirs

    d. Removing parallel tanks from storage during low demand periods

    e.                  
    All of the above
  26. All of the above
  27. Using a positive means of blending with a low concentration source, DPH
    may allow the use of a source water that exceeds the primary MCL for
    Nitrate
  28. Most below-ground-level storage tanks are constructed of
    Concrete
  29. The variation in water demand during the course of a day is termed
    Diurnal variation
  30. The primary reason that water quality may deteriorate in a storage tank
    is
    • Long detention
    • times
  31. 1.                 
    What information can be provided by analyzing a hydraulic grade line?

    a.                  
    The pressure at any point in the distribution system

    b.                 
    The direction of flow

    c.                  
    The amount of energy lost as friction

    d.                 
    All of the above

    e.                  
    None of the above
    • a.                 
    • All of the above
  32. 1.                 
    A rectangular water storage tank is filled to its 2,000,000 gallon
    capacity in exactly 10 hours.  What was
    the flow rate of water filling this tank, measured in gallons per minute?
    • a.                 
    • 3,330      
    • 2,000,000 gal ÷ (10 hr  x  60min/hr) =
  33. 1.                 
    How much water will be pumped out of a full circular storage tank that
    is 80-feet in diameter and 25-feet tall, if it is pumped out for 5 hours at
    1000 gallons per minute?
    • a.                 
    • 300,000 gallons              
    • 1,000 gal/min x (5 hr  x  60min/hr) =
  34. 1.                 
    How many feet of
    water will be added to a cylindrical storage tank 50 feet in diameter if it is
    filled at a rate of 1000 gpm for six hours?

    a.                  
    4.1 feet

    b.                 
    20.0 feet

    c.                  
    24.5 feet

    d.                 
    50.0 feet

    e.                  
    None of the above
    24.5 feet

    Height             =   Volume   ÷   Area
  35. Which of the following chemicals may be used to reduce the corrosion
    tendency of water?
    Zinc orthophosphate
  36. 1.                 
    Which of the following may be used for the prevention of corrosion?
    • a.                 
    • Cathodic
    • protection
  37. Which of the following chemicals may be used to raise the pH of water?
    • a.                 
    • Caustic soda
  38. Which of the following pipe system configurations provides the greatest service
    reliability
    • a.                 
    • Arterial loop
    • system
  39. 1.                 
    Which of the following pipe system configurations is characterized by
    having multiple dead ends?
    • a.                 
    • Tree system
  40. 1.                 
    Water that is low in TDS is likely to lead to
    • a.                 
    • Uniform corrosion
  41. 1.                 
    Which of the following is a means to determine the degree of
    corrosiveness of water?
    • a.                 
    • Coupon test
  42. Pipe with a “C” factor of 140 is regarded as having a(n)
    • Extremely smooth
    • interior
  43. Which of the following metals is easiest to corrode?
    Magnesium
  44. the diameters of distribution system mains are normally dictated by
    • a.                 
    • Maximum
    • anticipated flow rate
  45. The most common means of estimating the corrosion tendency of water is
    the
    Langlier index
  46. The operational remedy for poor water quality caused by high water age
    is
    • a.                 
    • Unidirectional
    • flushing
  47. The measurement of a pipe’s pulling resistance is called
    Tensile strength
  48. 1.                 
    As water age increases, so does the likelihood of

    a.                  
    Low disinfectant residual levels

    b.                 
    Increased bacteria counts

    c.                  
    Nitrite formation and nitrification

    d.                 
    Elevated turbidity levels

    All of the above
    All of the above
  49. The water in an 18-inch pipeline has a flow rate of 10 cfs.  What is the velocity?
    • a.                  
    • 5.66 ft/sec            
  50. V  =  10 ft3/sec ÷ (0.785 x 1.5 ft x 1.5ft)
  51. What minimum pipe diameter should be installed to accommodate a maximum
    flow rate of 7.5 cfs at a velocity of 6 feet per second?
    • 14 inch                
    • A    =  7.5ft3/sec ÷ 5.5 ft/sec =          1.36 ft2

     d =         √1.36 ft2      =          1.166 ft
  52. A 24-inch main is experiencing peak velocities of 8 feet per second.  What is the flow rate in this main under these conditions?
    • Q  = 
    • (0.785 x 2.0 ft x 2.0 ft) x 8 ft/sec 

    • a.                 
    • 25 cfs
  53. How can reservoirs be used to improve water quality?
    Blending
  54. What is the main cause of water quality deterioration in resevoirs?
    Water Age
  55. Name a mechanical means of reducing effective water age in reservoirs?
    Mxing
  56. In addition to water supply, what other services do we provide customers?
    Water Pressure
  57. What pipe protection device opens the pipe to the outside world?
    Air/Vacuum Relief Valves
  58. Term for pipe smoothness
    C-factor
  59. What metals are used as sacrificial anodes?
    Zinc and Magnesium
  60. Which pipe materials have high corrosion resistance and high interior smoothness?
    PVC Asbestos-cement
  61. What is the permanent or engineering solution for addressing water quality problems with dead ends?
    Looping
  62. What are the three conditions required for a work space to be considered Confined?
    Restricted ingress/egress

    • Large enough to enter
    • not for continuous occupancy
  63. What do we call a hydraulic condition that causes an unapproved source to flow into a potable water system?
    Backflow
  64. What do we call any arrangement of pipes and equipment that connects a non-potable source to a potable water system?
    Cross connection
  65. If system flows are high what will be the effect on system pressures?
    Lower
  66. Abnormally low system pressure can lead to this type of backflow
    Backsiphonage
  67. What category of customer is most likely to cause the back pressure form of back flow?
    Commercial / industrial
  68. 100% means of backflow prevention?
    Air gap
  69. What mechanical backflow prevention device is approved for all installations?
    Reduced Pressure Zone
  70. what divice is used to isolate pressurized devices within a customers water system?
    Pressure Vacuum Breaker
  71. What chemical is used to neutralize residual disinfectants in drinking water samples?
    Sodium Thiosulfate
  72. Which group of constituents requires that no air be present in the sample container?
    Volatilie organic chemicals
  73. What is the dissolved contaminant responsible for methemoglobinemia?
    Nitrate
  74. What is the term for the living and dead plants and animals in raw water supplies?
    Natural organic Matter ( NOM )
  75. what is the process that a surface water treatment plant may be required to use to remove DBP precursors?
    Enhanced Coagulation
  76. What is the most important characteristic of activated carbon?
    Large surface area
  77. the 2 activated carbons used in swt
    Powdered and Granulated
  78. Name an alternative process to carbon absorption for treating algae-related odors.
    Chemical Oxidation
  79. What is the most likely target for treatment using powdered activated carbon?
    Taste and Odor compounds
  80. Name the process that is used to restore the treatment capacity of granular activated carbon.
    Regeneration
  81. Hydrogen Sulfides odor
    Rotten egg
  82. Packed Tower aeration is an example of which form of aeration?
    water into air
  83. what is th most common means of converting Fe/Mn from dissolved particles into suspended ones?
    Oxidation
  84. what is the most common means of removing suspended Fe/Mn particles?
    Filtration
  85. Waht is a common filter medium for Fe/Mn removal?
    Manganese Greensand
  86. What is the term for the material that provides the surface for ion exchange to occur?
    Resin
  87. How does the charge on the surface of the resin compare with that of the ions being exchanged?
    Same Opposite
  88. What is the term for the waste stream generated by an ion exchange process?
    Brine
  89. What water treatment process uses sodium zeolite ?
    Ion Exchange Softening.
  90. name 2 cations removed from water during ion exchange softening
    Calcium and Magnesium
  91. Name the cation substituted for calcium and magnesium during the ion exchange softening process.
    Sodium
  92. The two ions that are exchanged into the water during the demineralization process.
    • Hydrogen and Hydroxcide Ions
    • (together forming water)
  93. What is the name for the periodic procedure used to maintain the treatment capacity of an ion exchange process?
    Regeneration
  94. Name the anion that is being removed from groundwater in the Santa Clarita Valley using the process of ion exchange.
    Perchlorate
  95. What is the anion normally added to the water when nitrate or perchlorate is removed during ion exchange?
    Chloride
  96. What type of chemical will form DBPs during normal treatment.
    Discinfectant
  97. Which of the regulated DBPs is characterized by having a single carbon atom?
    Trihalomethanes
  98. In the regulations, how is the chronic, low level effect of exposure risk to DBP ingestion addressed?
    Running annual averages
  99. What is the main ingredient required - besides a disinfectant - to form DBPs?
    • Natural organic Matter
    • NOM
  100. Which is the heavier of the two halogen elements found in DBPs?
    Bromine
  101. A raw water sample has a TOC of 3.5 mgl. Is the considered
    Low
    Moderate
    High
    Moderate
  102. What process is used in conjunction with conventional treatment to reduce NOM levels?
    Enhanced Coagulation
  103. Which Disinfectant is most commonly used to minimize DBP production?
    Chloramines
  104. Some Trihalomethane removal is possible using air stripping.  What is the term for the characteristic of THMs that makes this possible?
    Volatile

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