College Now: Intro to Political Science

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College Now: Intro to Political Science
2014-05-13 22:22:11
Chapter12 PoliticalScience CollegeNow
Political Science
Vocabulary from The Challenge of Politics: An Introduction to Political Science (College Now) (Spring 2014)
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  1. anticolonialism
    Political movement seeking to achieve independence for colonies, thus permitting countries to govern themselves.
  2. Arms Control
    Negotiations and agreements that limit the production of weapons by nations.   OR    international disarmament or arms limitation, especially by mutual consent.
  3. balance of power
    The maintenance of peace through the even distribution of power among competing nations so that no single state or combination of states is dominant.
  4. bipolarity
    The distribution of power between two nation-states.
  5. collective security
    Joining of countries into an organization to maintain international peace and law. Their collective strength deters or punishes aggression by member nations. The United Nations is one such organization.      OR     the cooperation of several countries in an alliance to strengthen the security of each.
  6. détente
    A relaxation of tensions between nation-states.
  7. Disarmament
    Negotiations and agreements whereby countries agree to reduce or eliminate weapons.
  8. Domination
    Policy of exercising direct or indirect control, sometimes despotic, over others.
  9. European Union
    regional organization built on the foundation of free trade. Seeks total European economic integration.
  10. functionalism
    Concept in international politics that asserts that the barriers to cooperation and peaceful conflict resolution can best be overcome when peoples and nations work together to meet common needs and advance mutual interests. Emphasis is on such functional areas as trade, health, agriculture, transportation, and environment.
  11. Globalization
    rapid and explosive increase in integrative international economic activity—trade, investment, and banking. Built on the twin pillars of capitalism and high-tech communications.
  12. Grand Debate
    Function of the United Nations whereby problems can be presented, discussed, and analyzed; ideas can be tested; and the strength of policies can be measured.
  13. hard power
    Military or economic influence.
  14. hegemony
    Circumstance in which one nation-state has overwhelming, dominating power.
  15. isolation
    Policy of withdrawal from, and non participation in, world affairs.
  16. multilateralism
    Groups of countries operating through international organizations and engaged in collective problem solving and problem resolution.     OR    multiple countries working in concert on a given issue.
  17. multilateralism corporation
    Private company operating in more than one country.
  18. multipolarity
    When power is distributed among several nation-states.
  19. neutrality
    legally based policy of remaining nonaligned with adversaries for the duration of a war. Can also be practiced in times of peace on a variety of international issues.    OR   the state of not supporting or helping either side in a conflict, disagreement, etc.; impartiality.
  20. nonalignment
    Policy whereby states refuse to participate in the struggle between major powers or superpowers.
  21. nongovernmental organizations
    A private international actor whose purpose and activity parallel those of interest groups.     OR
  22. peaceful settlement
    resolution of disputes through such nonviolent means as influence, inquiry, mediation, and conciliation.
  23. preventive diplomacy
    Action by such groups as the United Nations to help states, often smaller ones, settle disputes peacefully before the disputes escalate and involve major powers.
  24. soft power
    Influence exercised by less tangible means than raw power, such as persuasion, public opinion, and political skill.
  25. trusteeship
    Commission from the United Nations to a country to look after a region, territory, or colony until the people of that land are believed ready for independence and self-government.