microbiology quiz

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  1. what are the portals of entry
    • mucous membranes (mouth nose eyes GI urinary tract)
    • skin
    • parenteal (puncture wounds, bites,surgery)
  2. the number of a pathogen it would take to make 50% of the population sick
  3. attach to a host
    use specific cell receptor
    attach with pili or fimbriae
  4. bacteria injects invasin which moves around actin filaments so host will engulf a pathogen
  5. what are the enzymes used to break down host defense
    • coagulase
    • kinase
    • hyaluronidase
    • collagenase
    • IgA protease
  6. bacterial enzymes that coagulate blood so bacteria can hide in the coagulated blood.
  7. break down fibrin and digest clots formed by the body. sometimes the body will form clots to prevent spread of infection
  8. breaks down the connection between cells so that the bacteria can move freely through the tissue
  9. breaks down collagen so it can move through this type of tissue
  10. pathogens that produce this protease will break down this antibody found in mucous secretions
    IgA protease
  11. what method other than enzymes can bacteria use to increase ability to infect cells
    • antigenic variation
    • cell wall componants
    • capsule
    • penetration
  12. what type of toxin in tetanus
    A-B toxin
  13. what type of toxin is an erythrogenic
    membrane disrupting toxin
  14. what type of toxin is staphylococcal enterotoxin
    super anitgen
  15. damages red blood cells and blood vessels causing a reddish tint to the skin
  16. binds to nerve cells that innervate skelatal muscle. blocks the ability of the muscle to relax
  17. super antigen that results in toxic shock syndrome organ failure
    staphylococcal enterotoxin
  18. an endotoxin that is released into a host after the bacteria die and the cell membrane is broken down
  19. why is LPS bad
    stimulates macrophages to secrete high amounts of cytokines which can cause death to the host, fever, chills and aches
  20. how do viruses evade immune system
    • grow inside the cell
    • achetylcholine receptors
    • receptors
    • cd4 cells
  21. 5 cytopathic effects of viruses
    • stop host cell division
    • cause host to release lysosomes content
    • inclusion bodies-pieces of viruses waiting to be assembled
    • change ability of host to produce immune proteins
    • change the cell so it will be targeted for immune destruction
    • cause chromosome change
    • cause cancer by preventing contact inhibition
  22. what are 3 cytopathic effects of fungi
    • inhibit protein synthesis
    • secrete proteases
    • produce capsule to prevent phagocytosis
    • produce hallucinagenic toxins
    • decrease circulation leading to gangrene
    • cancer causing agents
    • potent neurotoxins
  23. alter genetic make up in a way that prevents them from being recognized by the immune system even after prior exposure
    antigenic variation
  24. algae that releases red tide neurotoxin which makes people very sick. get when eat fish that have ingested this algae
  25. what are the 4 most common portals of exit
    • respiratory (sneezing, coughing,)
    • GI (saliva, diarreha)
    • urinary tract (urine, sti)
    • skin ( wounds, bites)
  26. what are the three lines of defense
    • 1st
    • 2nd
    • 3rd
  27. skin, mucous membranes, tears, sweat, ear wax, hair, saliva, cilia in bronchi, gastric juices are all part of which line of defense
    1st (innate)
  28. no memory, basophils, nutrophils,eosinophils, inflammation, machrophages, fever are all characteristics of which line of defense
    2nd (innate)
  29. has memory, includes tcells and bcells, arises from infection are all characteristics of which line of defense
    3rd (adaptive)
  30. what are the 5 mechanisms of phagocytosis
    • chemotaxis
    • adhearence
    • ingestion
    • digestion 
    • release
  31. damaged host tissue and white blood cells will release cytokines, which activate T and B cells
  32. toll like receptors on macrophages allow phagocytic cells to attach to the surface of the pathogen
  33. plasma membrane extension reach out from the macrophage and surround the pathogen. extensions fuse and pull the pathogen into the cell. merges with the lysosomes
  34. lysosome content digests molocule
  35. waste is released through exocytosis
  36. after injury phagocytic cells migrate to and attach themselves to the blood vessels at the site of the infection/damage
  37. the passage of blood cells through the intact walls capillaries, typically accompanying inflammation
  38. 4 ways that the pathogens evade innate immune system
    • m protein make pathogen slippery
    • to big
    • can release toxin that will make phagosome digest itself
    • escape from vesicle
  39. example of pathogen with m protein
    strep pyogens
  40. pathogen to large to be endocytosed
    strep pneumoniae
  41. pathogen that will make phagosome digest itself
  42. pathogen that can escape from phagosytosed vessicle
    • trypanosoma cruzi
    • lysteria
  43. steps of inflammation
    • 1. vasodilation and icreased permeability of blood vessels
    • 2. phagocyte migration and phagocytosis
    • 3. tissue repair
  44. what are some negative things that can result from swelling
    • overproduction of damage repairing collagen fibers
    • can lead to auto immune problems
  45. what is another way to classify disease
    • how diseases are spread
    • how contagious
    • occurance
    • severity and duration
    • extent of host involvement
  46. what are the stages of disease
    • incubation period (no symptoms)
    • prodromal phase  ( vague symptoms)
    • invasive phase     (Most severe symptoms)
    • acme
    • decline                ( declining symptoms)
    • convalescence
  47. what is a nosocomial infection
    acquired in a hospital
  48. what three things needed to be a nosocomial infection
    • micro organism in hospital enviroment
    • compromised immune system of patients
    • chain of transmission
  49. why are fevers good
    • increase the mechanism for repair
    • increase transferons
    • increase the activity of anti viral transferons
  50. why are fevers bad
    • cause tachycardia
    • acidosis
    • electrolyte imbalance
    • delirium
    • seizures
    • death
  51. what are the three pathways in the compliment system
    • classical pathway
    • alternative pathway
    • lectin pathway
  52. what triggers a classical pathway
    antibodies attach to antigens which bind to C1
  53. what triggers an alternative pathway
    C3 combines with compliment proteins B,D,P
  54. what triggers the lectin pathway
  55. what  is the best description of descriptive epidemiology
    collecting data
  56. what is the best description of analytical epidemiology
    • analyzing data
    • creating a hypothesis
  57. what are the pathogenic effects of a viral infection
    • can cause cancer
    • causes cells to release lysomsomal content
  58. what are the effects of a helminth infection
    • anemia
    • lymph blockage
    • malnutrition
    • release toxins that cause diarrhea
  59. what are parts of the second line of defense
    • compliment
    • inflammation
    • fever
    • neutophils
    • macrophages
  60. diapedesis is a word that means
    process by which immune cells squeeze between the endothelium of blood vessels at the site if infection
  61. steps of phagocytosis
    • chemotax
    • attach
    • endocytose
    • digestion
    • release
  62. what happens when compliment is activated
    • opsonization
    • cytolisis
    • inflammation
  63. ctyolisis means to
    poke holes in the outside of the cell membrane
  64. what is the best explanation of degranulation
    exocytosis of the cytoplasmic contents that lead to inflammation
  65. iron binding proteins include things like
    • heme groups in rbcs for oxygen transport
    • siderophores that microorganisms use to take iron from a host
  66. what is adaptive immunuity
    the specific immune response
  67. what makes up adaptive immunity
    • tcells
    • bcells
    • antibodies
  68. what are the five classes of antibodies
    • IgG
    • IgM
    • IgA
    • IgD
    • IgE
  69. what does IgG activate
    compliment system
  70. what antibody clumps viruses and cells together
  71. what antibody is found in tears, sweat and breast milk
  72. initiates immune response through degranulation,involved in allergic reactions
  73. what are the different types of t cells
    • helper t cells
    • regulatory t cells
    • killer t cells
    • memory t cells
  74. 5 types of cytokines are
    • interferons
    • interleukins
    • tumor necrosis factor
    • growth factors
Card Set:
microbiology quiz
2014-05-21 16:15:28
fortis micro quiz

micro quiz
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