External Parasites

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External Parasites
2014-05-14 13:12:07

External parasites
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  1. harmful effects of arthropods
    • blood loss
    • immunity
    • worry
    • secondary infection
    • vector
    • myiasis
  2. clinical anemia
    total blood loss by parasites faster than bone marrow can replace at a normal rate
  3. aplastic anemia
    total blood loss due to natural means without normal replacement at normal rate by bone marrow
  4. Tick paralysis
    ascending paralysis
  5. myiasis
    infection by fly larvae

    (fly infestation)
  6. myiasis is easy to control with the exception of
    Cochliomyia hominivorax (american screwworm) whose eggs can hatch over night and larvae can be inside host in 24 hrs
  7. Cochliomyia hominivorax
    serious menace to animals and humans

    • docking, castration wounds, wire cuts, navels of newborns, tick bites, etc attract them
    • (land on animals that aren't moving due to injuries)

    female breeds one time
  8. tick borne, protozoan disease of cow
    Bovine Piroplasmosis/Babesiosis

    • etiology: Babesia bovis/ bigemina
    • vector: Boophilus annulatus (1 host tick)
  9. tick borne, protozoan disease of dog
    Canine Piroplasmosis/ Babesiosis

    • etiology: Babesia canis
    • vector: Rhipicephallus sanguineus (3 host tick)
  10. rickettssial diseases
    • Rocky mountain spotted fever
    • Q fever
    • Ehrlichiosis
  11. etiology of rocky mountain spotted fever
    Rickettsia rickettsi
  12. etiology of Ehrlichiosis
    Ehrilicia canis, chaffeensis, ewingii, ruminantium
  13. Canine Ehrlichiosis
    infectious rickettsial disease of dogs

    characterized by acute reduction in cellular blood elements, most often thrombocytopenia
  14. brown dog tick
    Rhipicephalus sanguineous
  15. vector tick of Canine Ehrlichiosis
    Rhipicephalus sanguineous
  16. clinical signs of Ehrlichiosis
    acute: depression, anorexia, fever, severe loss of stamina, weight loss, ocular&nasal discharge, dyspnea, lymphadenopathy, edema of limbs or scrotum

    chronic: mild to absent
  17. hematologic abnormalities with Ehrlichiosis
    • thrombocytopenia
    • pancytopenia
    • aplastic anemia
  18. tick borne viral diseases
    • Louping Ill
    • Western Equine Encephalitis
  19. tick borne bacterial diseases
    • Tularemia
    • Canine Bartonellosis
  20. Louping Ill
    ovine (sheep) encephalomyelitis (inflammation of brain and spinal cord)

    vector: Ixodes ricinus

    signs are neurological 

    if recover, immune for life
  21. Equine Encephalitis vector, Western vs. Eastern
    • Western: tick
    • Eastern: mosquito
  22. Tularemia
    cause: Francisella tularensis, gram negative bacteria

    • primary host: sheep
    • intermediate host: Dermacentors, Amblyomma
  23. Canine Bartonellosis
    fastidious gram negative bacteria highly adapted to mammal's RBC becoming a life long intraerythrocytic bacteremia

    tick of transmission: Rhipicepahlus sanguineous

    species most frequently causing disease in dogs: Bartonella vinsonii (berkhoffi)
  24. diagnosis and treatment of Canine Bartonellosis
    diagnosis: thrombocytopenia, anemia, neutrophilic leukocytosis

    treatment: antibiotics (since it is a bacteria!) for long period of time

    drugs of choice: Macrolides (erythromycin and azithromycin) for 4-6 wks
  25. spirochetes
    Lyme Disease
  26. Lyme Disease
    or Lyme borreliosis

    • borrelia are small spirochetes
    • most common species: Borrelia burgdorferi

    vector: Ixodes scapularis "deer tick"
  27. etiological agent of Lyme Disease
    Borrelia burgdorferi
  28. vector of Lyme Disease
    Ixodes scapularis "deer tick" formerly (Ixodes dammini)

    or Ixodes pacificus
  29. Lyme Disease
    etiological agent:
    • Borellia burgdorferi
    • Ixodes scapularis
    • Borellia burgdorferi multiplies in the tick and localizes in their saliva, tick takes blood meal and injects the bacteria (spirochete)

    in dog, signs take 2-6 months: fever, lameness, lymphadenomegaly, malaise
  30. symptoms of Lyme Disease
    • verified tick bite (redness)
    • flulike symptoms (chills with head/back ache)
    • positive blood test (immunoblot)
    • bruise like rash (Erythema migrans "bulls eye")
  31. treatment of Lyme Disease
    antibiotic Doxycycline
  32. mosquito borne animal plagues
    • malaria (protozoan)
    • eastern equine encephalitis (virus)
    • dirofilaria immitis (filariids)
  33. etiology of Malaria
    Plasmodium malariae
  34. clotting problems seen with

    (acute thrombocytopenia)
  35. flea borne animal plagues
    • Bubonic Plague (Yersinia pestis)
    • Acanthochelonema reconditum (blood filariid)
    • Dipylidium caninum
  36. etiology of Bubonic Plague
    Yersinia pestis
  37. two forms of flies
    • aquatic- primitive
    • terrestrial (land)- highly adaptive
  38. family Culicidae
    mosquitoes, sandflies, blackflies, midgies
  39. family Tabanidae
    horseflies, deerflies
  40. most important Group of flies to domestic animals

    • family: Oestridae (bots)
    • Cuterebridae (bots)
    • Calliphoridae (blow flies)
    • Sarcophagidae (flesh flies)
    • Hypodermatidae (bot&heel flies, grub)
    • Gasterophilidae (bots)
    • Hyppoboscidae
    • Muscidae (house fly)
  41. Musca domestica
    house fly
  42. Musca autumnalis
    face fly
  43. Stomoxys calcitrans
    stable fly
  44. Haematobia irritans
    horn fly
  45. Genus: Glossina
    Tsetse fly
  46. vector of Trypanosomiasis
    Glossina, the tsetse fly

    (wings lie across the back)
  47. eye worm of cattle and horses
    Thelazia lacrymalis or Thelazia skrjabini

    (gulosa in cattle only)
  48. eye worm of dog
    Thelazia californiensis
  49. Gasterophilidae
    family of bot flies

    • Gasterophilus intestinalis
    • Gasterophilus nasalis
    • Gasterophilus haemorhoidalis
  50. lifecycle of family culicidae (mosquitoes)
    • 1.egg laid in water. hatch in days (air breathers)
    • 2.larvae molts 4 times ending in pupae stage
    • 3.pupae develops into adult mosquitoes

    three stages: larvae, pupae, imago (adult)
  51. stages of culicidae (mosquitoes)
    • larvae
    • pupae
    • imago
  52. mosquitoes are biological vectors for
    • yellow fever
    • malaria
    • eastern equine encephalitis
    • dirofilaria immitis
  53. lifecycle of family muscidae (Musca domestica-common house fly)
    • 1. egg laid in manure/organic material
    • 2. 1st stage larvae emerge in 1-2 days
    • 3. 1st stage molts twice into 3rd stage
    • 4. 3rd moves to dry medium and pupates
    • 5. 4th stage (pupa)molt to adult in 2-3 wks

    (biological vectors for summer sores of gastric worms)
  54. lifecycle of Musca autumnalis (face fly)
    *adult flies crawl about horses face and feed on ocular/nasal discharge

    • 1. eggs deposited in cattle feces
    • 2. eggs hatch&larvae emerge
    • 3. larvae molt to pupae and imago
    • 4. imago fly away and continue life cycle
  55. lifecycle of Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly)
    *flies feed on blood from primarily horses, numerous times spreading blood borne viruses (EEE)

    • 1.reproduce and lay eggs in grass
    • 2.eggs hatch in grass and larvae emerge
    • 3.larvae molt to pupae and imago
    • 4.imago fly away and continue life cycle
  56. biological vector for Habronema microstoma
    Stomoxys calcitrans
  57. lifecycle of Haematobia irritans
    • 1. flies live on back and suck blood leaving their host only to lay eggs in their feces
    • 2. larvae hatch immediately and feed on feces
    • 3. pupation occurs in 4-5 days
    • 4. adults emerge in 11-12 days
  58. causes holes in the cows hide
    Hypoderma lineatum
  59. lifecycle of Hypoderma lineatum
    • 1. Hypoderma lineatum eggs or larvae consumed orally
    • 2. larvae penetrates intestines, migrates for 5 months accumulating around the esophagus, where they spend 3 months
    • 3. larvae migrate to SQ tissue of back and poke breathing holes in cow's back and molt twice
    • 4. larvae (now called grubs) mature, enlarge breathing holes, escape and fall to the ground to pupate
    • 5. adult flies emerge and reproduce to lay eggs.

    *direct lifecycle: the fly is not an intermediate host the fly is THE parasite.
  60. commonly called "Heartworm Disease" in cow and horse
    Onchocerca cervicalis

    (not a good nickname bc do not grow to adults or go to heart)
  61. lifecycle of Hypoderma bovis
    • 1. eggs laid on cow's skin and hatch
    • 2. larvae burrow into skin and begin migration for unsure period of time&accumulate around spinal canal
    • 3. larvae then move to cow's back to punch breathing holes in hide, molt at least 2 more times
    • 4. larvae mature, enlarge holes, escape, falling to ground to pupate
    • 5. adult flies emerge, reproduce and lay eggs

    • *grubs release histamine if crushed
    • histamine=vasodilation which leads to shock (shock is vasodilation and reduced cardiac output) &cow will die. so once the grubs are there you must leave them alone.
  62. cause "grubby back"
    • Hypoderma lineatum
    • Hypoderma bovis
  63. crushing these grubs causes release of histamine that can be deadly to cows
    Hypoderma bovis/lineatum
  64. treatment for Hypodermatidae
    Ivomec administered in the fall or apply organophosphate chemicals prior to Hypoderma bovis (no real help to prevent Hypoderma lineatum because get through ingestion vs. eggs being laid on skin)
  65. family for bot flies

    (bot capsules passed in feces, hatch, flies emerge, breed and deposit eggs in various places)
  66. Gasterophilus intestinalis
    • eggs on: foreleg&shoulders
    • larvae: tongue

    • 1 month, larvae move to stomach
    • 11 months, bot capsules pass in feces
  67. Gasterophilus nasalis
    • eggs on: intermandibular spaces
    • larvae: between molars

    • 1 month, larvae move to dueodenum
    • 11 months, bot capsules pass in feces
  68. Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis
    • eggs: around lips
    • larvae: in cheek

    • 1 month, larvae to duodenum
    • 11 months, bot capsules pass in feces
  69. "sheep nasal fly"
    Oestrus ovis

    lay eggs around face and sheep will sniff them in
  70. lifecycle of Oestrus ovis (sheep nasal worm)
    • 1. 1st stage deposited in nostril of sheep
    • 2. larvae crawls into nasal passages
    • 3. molts occur in nasal passages in a few wks&bots crawl out and drop to ground to pupate
    • 4. adults emerge in 4-6 wks, mate, lay eggs (around sheep's face, allowing them to sniff them in, completing life cycle), die

    (if cold weather, 1st stage remain dormant in nasal area)

    can wipe out entire herds of sheep
  71. famous for genetic research since birth is given to mature larvae ready to pupate
    Glossin (Tsetse fly)
  72. lifecycle of Cochliomyia hominovorax (American screwworm)
    • 1. female lays eggs on wounds/moist tissue
    • 2. eggs hatch in 1 day, maggots (1st stage larvae) feed
    • 3. larvae fall off host and pupate 5-7 days
    • 4. adults emerge in 1-3 wks and reproduce
    • 5. female begins to lay eggs

    *a flesh worm
  73. family for "blow flies"
  74. family for "flesh flies"
  75. family for "house flies"
  76. lifecycle of Cuterebra palpebrae
    • 1. eggs laid along rabbit trails
    • 2. animal runs through&picks up egg, molts
    • 3. larvae crawls to moist area and penetrates
    • 4. larvae stay in self-limiting area (burrow into skin in one spot) for wks
    • 5. larvae emerge, metamorphosis occurs larvae turns into a fly
    • 6. males&females breed and lay eggs along trails
  77. flies of the class:
    • Insecta
    • Diptera (two winged)
  78. two Orders of lice
    • Anaplura: sucking lice
    • larger
    • slower moving
    • more pathogenic
    • (painless but takes a lot of blood)

    • Mallophaga:
    • biting/chewing lice
    • mouth mandible like parts
    • (painful yet takes less blood)
  79. sucking lice
    Order Anaplura
  80. biting/chewing lice
    Order Mallophaga
  81. etiology of typhus
  82. lice eggs
    louse eggs or nits
  83. are lice host specific?
    yes, very
  84. human lice
    Pediculus corporis
  85. what is different about Pediculus corporis (human lice)?
    cling to clothing instead of body hairs during feeding.

    (when ppl unable to bath/change clothes, Epidemic Typhus transmitted, etiology is Rickettsia)
  86. lifecycle of lice
    incomplete metamorphosis

    • 1. eggs must have feathers/hair to attach to
    • 2. eggs hatch into tiny replicas of adult lice
    • 3. several molts occur with minor changes
  87. most common Mallophaga (biting lice)
    • Tichodectes canis: dog
    • Heterodoxus spiniger: dog
    • Felicola subrostrata: cat
  88. most common Anaplura (sucking lice)
    Linognathus setosus: dog, cat, fox, rabbit, ferret, wolve, coyote
  89. are fleas host specific?
    no, Ctenocephalides felis is the most universally common flea
  90. 3 things that produce pathogenic pruritus
    • fleas
    • food allergies
    • sarcoptic mange
  91. type of etiology of Bubonic Plague
    bacteria (Yersinia pestis)

    transmitted by fleas
  92. blood filariid transmitted by fleas
    Acanthochelonema reconditum
  93. cestode (tapeworm) transmitted by fleas
    Dipylidium caninum
  94. fleas are vectors of
    • Bubonic Plague (Yersinia pestis)
    • Endemic Typhus (Rickettsia prowazeki)
    • Dipylidium caninum
    • Anaplocephala
    • Acanthochelonema reconditum
  95. copulation in fleas occurs when?
    after a blood meal
  96. what do flea larvae feed on?
    sebum and flea feces which contains digestive blood giving the developmental larvae a reddish coloration
  97. human flea
    Pulex irritans
  98. flea egg production begins
    24-48 hrs after female has taken first blood meal almost immediately after acquiring a host (nearly all fleas feed within 1 hr on new host)

    • blood meals for female: 25 min
    • male: 11 min
  99. fipronil
  100. imidacloprid
  101. lifecycle of Ctenocephalides
    • white egg (laid on ground or body)-hatch in 3 wks
    • yellowish white larvae- molt 1 wk
    • reddish brown larvae- moly 1 wk (feed on feces)
    • opaque white larvae- 1 wk spin cocoon
    • cocoon erupts in 2 wks&produce pupa
    • pupa rest 3 wks then hatches
    • adult will live off and on the host for 6 months
  102. death to egg&larvae of flea
    • water (drown)
    • bright sunlight
    • humidity below 50% (altitudes above 5,000ft)
  103. spot on flea treatment
    • Frontline (Fipronil)
    • Advantage (Imidacloprid)
    • Revolution (Selamectin)
    • ProMeris (Metaflumizone&Amitraz)
    • TriForce
  104. topical spray for fleas
    Ovitrol Plus (chemical Precor)
  105. single day treatment for fleas
    Capstar (Nitenpyram)
  106. chewable tablets for fleas
    • Comfortis (Spinosad)
    • Trifexis (Spinosaid&Milbemycin oxime)
  107. Frontline Plus
    Fipronil with added Methoprene as an ovatrol to kill the egg and larvae instead of the adult alone
  108. corporation makes Advantage
  109. Advantage only kills
    • adult fleas
    • no effect on ticks
    • effective for 25 days

    • ingredients: Imidacloprid
    • prevents synaptic binding of acetylcholine
    • time for elimination of fleas, cat: 24 hrs, dog: 12-18 hrs
  110. European Advantage Multi

    used for treatment of demodicosis and sarcoptic mange
  111. ingredient in flea meds that cannot be used on cats
    permethrin (synthetic pyrethrin)
  112. flea allergy dermatitis in cats
    Milliary Dermatitis
  113. Sentinel is a combination of
    • Milbemycin oxime: HW preventative sold as Interceptor
    • Lufenuron: ovitrol
  114. active ingredient in Capstar

    kills adult fleas only!
  115. How to use Capstar (Nitenpyram) effectively
    • eliminate existing problem immediately followed by monthly products
    • prior to boarding, surgery
    • prior to release from clinic
    • give together with top spot
    • can be put in food for owners w/ pillphobia
  116. drug of choice for maggots
  117. explain the relationship between cats and Pyrethrins
    Pyrethrins will kill cats because they lack the liver enzymes necessary to breakdown Pyrethrins, Permethrins, or Pyrethroids which must be decomposed into metabolites in order for their end products to be excreted via the kidneys

    "No Advatix for Felix"
  118. Selamectin is an

    prevents&controls fleas, considered drug of choice for ear mites and scabies
  119. Vectra 3D
    • most recent topical
    • Summit-Vet Pharm Corporation

    • kills fleas, ticks, mosquitos for 1 month
    • kills vector ticks

    active ingredients: dinotefuran, pyriproxyfen, permethrin (for cats does not have permethrin--loosing mosquito prevention aspect)
  120. only drug approved by FDA for demodectic mange
  121. ProMeris (discontinued as of June 2011)
    • Ft. Dodge
    • spot on

    • ingredients: Metaflumizone (fleas) smells
    • Amitraz (ticks)

    Amitraz not in cat's 
  122. drug of choice for Demodectic mange that will kill cats and horses
  123. Amitraz is reversed by
  124. Trifexis
    Spinosad&Milbemycin oxime

    prevent dirofilaria immitis, kills&controls fleas, hooks, rounds, whips

    atleast 8 wks and 5lbs

    • starts killing fleas in 30 min
    • chewable q 30 days
    • puppies under 14 wks may vomit
  125. Comfortis (first oral product since Proban)

    • once a month chewable
    • dogs only. 14 wks and older
    • kills fleas before they can lay eggs and continues to kill fleas that get on the host for one month
  126. company that makes Comfortis
    Eli Lilly
  127. when using this product you need to be careful about the use of Ivermectin, which could lead to adverse effects
    Comfortis (spinosad)

    signs: ataxia, salivation, lethargy, dilated pupils, isolated seizures

    treatment: stop Ivermectin, administer fluids
  128. Program (Proprietary)

  129. Frontline

  130. Advantage

  131. Revolution

  132. ProMeris

    Fort Dodge
  133. Comfortis

  134. cockroaches of the family

    only concern is biological vectors of human/animal filth diseases
  135. beetles of the order

    • intermediate host for spirocerca lupi
    • Egg>coprophagic beetle>facultative host>host(dog) penetrate stomach wall>arterial system>esophagus
  136. characteristics of Arachnida (ticks/mites)
    • larval stage has 3 pairs of legs (6 total)
    • nymph&adults have 4 pairs (8 total)
    • head, thorax, abdomen fused
    • antennae&mandibles not present
    • mouth parts covered by false head (capitulum)
  137. suborder Metastigmata is
    all of the ticks
  138. stigmata
    breathing pore
  139. Family Ixodidae
    hard tick

    shield or scutum covers entire dorsal surface. capitulum projects anteriorly 
  140. Family Argasidae
    soft tick

    no scutum. capitulum is ventral in adults
  141. are Ixodid ticks blood suckers?
  142. Ixodid tick molts
    • 1. Larvae "seed tick" to Nymph
    • 2. Nympth to Adult
  143. interstadially/ transtadially
    infection acquired by nymph is carried through the molt and conveyed to the host on which the adult tick feeds

    (disease can be transmitted by the nymph stage)
  144. example of a one host tick
    Boophilus annulatus

    (completes all molts without leaving host)
  145. two host tick
    seed tick larvae molts to nymph, nymph falls off 1st host, molts to adult, adult relocates to 2nd host
  146. three host tick
    larvae drops off host to molt to nymph, nymph finds 2nd host, nymph drops off 2nd host to molt to adult, adult relocates to 3rd host
  147. which type of host tick can transmit interstadially? 
    2 and 3 host ticks
  148. mechanism that allows one host ticks to serve as vectors
    transovarial transmission
  149. three host examples
    • Dermacentor variabilis
    • Rhipicephalus sanguineus
  150. describe Piroplasmosis/Babesiosis
    • etiology: protozoan of the order Sporozoa and Genus Babesia
    • utilizes the erythrocyte (RBC) to parasitize and multiply by binary fission moving in 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, etc.
    • intermediate host: Boophilus
    • transmission: transovarial
    • symptoms: anemia due to early death of RBC, can cause red urine "red water"
  151. etiology of Equine Babesiosis/Piroplasmosis
    Babesia caballi/ equi
  152. "brown dog tick"
    Rhipicephalus sanguineus
  153. why are dogs that have had splenectomies more likely to have problems?
    spleen produces lymphocytes which produce antibodies which fight off things like Babesia, so dogs with splenectomy more susceptible 
  154. etiology of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    Rickettsia rickettsii
  155. intermediate host carrying Rickettsia
    Dermacentor andersoni/variablis
  156. wood tick
    Dermacentor andersoni
  157. american dog tick
    Dermacentor variablis
  158. Rickettsia utilize what type of ticks
    2 and 3 host
  159. etiology of Q Fever
    Coxiella burnetti
  160. unique to Ehrlichia
    • will attack RBC and WBC
    • (most cell lysing parasites only attack RBC)
  161. Otobius megnini
    "spider/spinose ear tick"
  162. spider/spinose ear tick
    Otobius megnini
  163. this disease causes hydropericardium
    Heartwater (cowdria)
  164. suborder METAstigmata
  165. suborder MESO/A/PROstigmata
  166. stigma
    respiratory pore in the middle of the body
  167. name the hard ticks (family Ixodidae)
    • Ixodes
    • Amblyomma
    • Dermacentor
    • Rhipicephalus
    • Boophilus
    • Haemophysalia
  168. name the soft ticks (family Argasidae)
    • Argas
    • Ornithodorus
    • Otobius
    • Antricola
  169. identify the Scabies families
  170. ear margins
    Sarcoptes scabei
  171. mites cause
  172. suborder Astigmata
    no respiratory pore

    families: Psoroptidae&Sarcoptidae (Scabies)
  173. why is deep skin scraping needed for diagnosis of sarcoptic mange?
    female mites burrow in stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, and upper malpighian layer of the skin

    (hard to diagnose, easy to treat)
  174. family Sarcoptidae
    • Sarcoptes
    • Notoedres
  175. family Psoroptidae
    • Psoroptes
    • Chorioptes
    • Otodectes
  176. most common mange mite
    Otodectes cynotis
  177. "itch mange" "dog itch mite"
    Sarcoptes scabei
  178. most feared and most treated mite
    Demodex canis
  179. treatment of Otodectes cynotis
    Acarexx (0.01% ivermectin)
  180. "red mange"
  181. etiology of Demodectic Mange
    • mite
    • depressed immune system
  182. contraindication for Demodex

    they suppress the immune system
  183. treatment for Demodicosis
    • 1.Amitraz (Mitaban by Upjohn Company)
    • dip every 2 wks

    • 2.Milbemycin oxime (Interceptor by Novartis)
    • monthly dosage of 0.5 mg/kg twice a day every 30 days for 3 months

    • 3.Ivermectin (Ivomec 1%- Merial)
    • 0.6 mg/kg/day

    4.Lufenuron (Program- Novartis)

    5.Advantage Multi (Advocate in Europe)
  184. drug of choice for Demodicosis
  185. failure of demodicosis treatment:
    • premature suspension of treatment
    • failure to treat bacterial skin infections
    • stress from environment/family
    • heat cycle
    • iatrogenically induced glucocorticoids
    • underlying concurrent diseases
    • idiopathic problems
  186. dog comes in with generalized demodicosis, what would you do for them first?
    • chlorhexadine soap bath in warm water
    • antibiotics
  187. other Demodex species
    • bovis- pus nodules on head
    • ovis- lesions on eyelids
    • caprae- all over body of goats
    • phyllodides- around eyes&snout
    • equi- hair loss starts at head
  188. "Walking Dandruff"
    • Cheyletiella yasguri- dog
    • Cheyletiella blakei- cat
    • parasitivorax- rabbit
  189. Cheyletiella yasguri
    Walking Dandruff
  190. "sheep itch mite"
    Psorobis ovis

    a reportable disease because results in pruritis and alopecia effecting the wool industry
  191. "cat itch mite"
    Notoedres cati
  192. diagnosis with Sarcoptes, Notoedres, Psoroptes, Chorioptes, and Otodectes Genuses are all considered 
    forms of Scabies
  193. "chiggers"
    Trombiculid larvae
  194. appearance of chiggers
    • six legged larvae
    • tiny
    • bright red
    • found in dark, tight places (ear canal)
    • self limiting causing itching/dermatitis
  195. Leischmaniasis
    • external parasitic protozoan disease
    • etiology: Leischmania donovani/canis
    • vector: Sand Fly
    • signs: wasting, muscle atrophy, conjunctivitis
    • nodules on surface that ulcerate and form brown crusts

    protozoan will enter the blood and lodge in spleen, liver, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and other blood cell producing organs resulting in anemia and eventual death
  196. Pelodera Dermatitis
    etiology: Pelodera strongyloides

    • penetrate the skin and live SQ, migrating and creating erythematous lesions and pruritis
    • secondary bacterial infections common
  197. Dirofilariasis
    • microfilaria will on occasion migrate from the blood to SQ tissues resulting in S1 migrating aimlessly under the skin
    • erythematous lesions with alopecia on head, neck, chest, axillary area producing skin lesions identical to Pelodera
  198. tick paralysis caused by
    Ixodid ticks

    anticoagulant protein toxin passed into the host, as they suck blood, produces anaphylactic condition of ascending paralysis
  199. "Red Mite"
    • Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry mite)
    • prefers birds but will leave nest, crawling down to infect man
  200. "Red Bug"
    • North American Chigger
    • larvae is the irritant as it crawls up legs and adheres to the skin
  201. causes of "Red Mange"
    • mite
    • suppressed immune system
  202. 4 things that can cause itching
    • allergies
    • atopy (inhaled allergies)
    • flea
    • sarcoptic
  203. Demodicosis is not contagious, is Sarcoptes?
    Demodicosis is not contagious, it is hereditary (suppressed immune system) can be exposed to the mite but only 

    Sarcoptes is contagious, 
  204. Sarcoptes scabei and Notoedres cati are both known as
    "Dog and Cat Scabies" since both are members of the family Sarcoptidae

    • both found deep in the skin
    • prefer hairless areas (margin of ears) start there and travel creating alopecia in other areas
    • hair loss is patchy
  205. Sarcoptic mange
    • Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis
    • female lays eggs and burrows into the stratum corneum of dermis
    • life cycle 21 days
    • common in young&old, more common in animals on corticosteroids
    • highly pruritic
    • contagious to ppl
    • starts of margin of ears
    • pinnal-pedal reflex (rub edge of dogs ear and hind leg on same side will scratch)
  206. "feline scabies"
    • or Notoedric Mange
    • Notoedres cati
    • life cycle like sarcoptes
    • very contagious to humans
  207. lifecycle of Otodectes cynotis
    • egg-4 days
    • larvae- 3-5 days
    • protonymph- 3-5 days
    • deutonymph- 3-5 days
    • adult (8 legs)- lives for 2 months

    lifecycle total of 3 wks so need to do treatment once a wk for 3 wks
  208. "Ear Mites"
    Otodectes cynotis

    • found on skin of neck and face
    • feed on loose crusts and cerumen (ear wax) in the ears resulting in dark exudate in ear canal

    treat: organophosphates, milbemycin oxime, firponil...
  209. concern with house mites
    • allergic effect on respiratory problems
    • (asthma in brachiocephalic breeds expose to high numbers of house mites)
    • can be vaccinated if sensitive to them
  210. characteristics of lice
    • wingless
    • entire life on host
    • direct contact needed for spread
    • louse produce nits
    • lifecycle varies 14-21 days

    • anoplura: sucking
    • mallophaga: biting
  211. name the sucking lice (Anoplura)
    Linognathus setosus
  212. name the biting lice (Mallophaga)
    • Trichodectes canis
    • Felicola subrostrata
  213. describe the complete metamorphosis of fleas
    • eggs-laid on or off host 1-3 wks to hatch
    • larvae- (yellow, red, white, cocoon) 3 wks
    • pupa- hatches in 3-4 wks
    • adult- lives for 6 months
  214. describe ideal conditions for fleas
    • low altitude
    • 70% humidity
    • 65-80 degrees
  215. fleas consume
    15 times their body weight in blood
  216. fleas transmit this blood filarid
    Acanthochelonema reconditum
  217. fleas and their feces/saliva in infected nail beds of cats and cat bites are routes of transmission of the bacteria,
    Bartonella henselae

    resulting in Cat Scratch Disease (does cause fever, as all bacteria do)
  218. etiology of Cat Scratch Disease
    Bartonella henseale
  219. flea activity on the host
    • fleas mate within 12 hrs on host
    • eggs produced within 24 hrs
    • female flea average 27 eggs/day
    • 2,000 eggs in lifetime 
  220. fleas attracted to
    • dark clothes
    • lactic acid
    • carbon dioxide
    • shade
    • dry 
  221. 3 conditions that mean death to flea egg&larvae
    • water
    • light
    • humidity
  222. source point
    where the eggs have been laid
  223. only 5-10% of the entire flea population is found on the animal at one time, why is this?
    majority of flea populations are present in the surroundings of the host

    (this is why on-animal and environmental flea-control strategies should be used. Lufenuron, Fipronil, Imidacloprid have given better control)
  224. time for elimination of fleas
    • Frontline (Fipronil) cat 24-36 dog 24
    • Advantage (Imidacloprid) cat 24 dog 12-18
    • Capstar (Nitenpyram) cat 3-4 dog 3-4
    • Revolution (Selamectin) cat 24 dog 36-42
  225. Flea- Insect Growth Regulators (IGR)
    juvenile hormone mimics, which bind to juvenile hormone receptors and prevent survival to next stage of development

    • types: Juvenile Hormone Analogs (Mimics)
    • Insect Development Inhibitor
  226. Juvenile Hormone Analogs (Mimics)
    type of Insect Growth Regulator

    • Methoprene (Frontline Plus)
    • Pyriproxifen (Nylar)

    • JHA- act in one of two ways:
    • stop the growth of egg (no hatch)
    • egg develops but larvae does not and dies

    *safest=no biological effect on host
  227. Insect Development Inhibitor
    type of Insect Growth Regulator

    Lufenuron (Program) stops growth of eggs so do not hatch

    after adimin Lufenuron dispersed to adipose tissue and slowly released into bloodstream. during a blood meal, female flea ingests Lufenuron, which is transferred to eggs. chitin-containing egg now fails to develop normally and larvae die in egg. larvae that do hatch die during first molt.
  228. Ringworm

    treatment with Lufenuron seemed to get rid of it faster
  229. Cyromazine
    type of Insect Growth Regulator

    • little effect except certain flies
    • blocks formation of new cuticle in fly larvae, when molts from 1st to 2nd fails to survive molt

    (Larvadex 1% Premix-fed to chickens passeds through in manure to control fly filth)
  230. Diflubenzuron
    type of Insect Growth Regulator

    contact and systemic insecticide interferes with chitin development preventing shedding of old skin, leading to death of larvae and pupae

    given as bolus to cattle to be passed in feces to control flies
  231. bee, wasp, hornet
    female ovipositor adapted for stinging-breaks off and remains in wound

    • redness, edema, other forms of inflammation
    • anaphylaxis can result and Angioneurotic Edema can result interfering with respiration along with cardiac&respiratory impairment resulting in death

    treat: remove stinger, steroids, antihistamines, epinephrine, fluids
  232. common Yeast (skin fungus)
    • Candida albicans
    • Malassezia pachydermatis
    • Cryptococcus neoformans
    • Blastomyces dermatitidis
    • Histoplasma capsulatum
  233. Candida albicans
    • Yeast
    • often found on normal mm
    • generally after prolonged antibiotic therapy, immunosuppresive diseases, skin damage

    • diagnosis: wet mounts from skin scraping
    • gram stained smears=gram positive oval yeast cells
    • will grow on blood agar&Sabouraud's dextrose as white colonies
  234. Malassezia pachydermatis (Pityrosporon canis)
    • one of most common causes of otitis externa along with Otodectes cynotis
    • ear canals, perianally, moist skin

    diagnosis: gram-stained smears of exudate as oval or bottle-shaped small budding cell
  235. what do you not want to give when have yeast?
    • steroids, yeast will spread all over the body
    • iatrogenically induced!
  236. Dermatophytes
    • superficial funguses known as "Ringworm"
    • torpedo shaped w/ ridges

    • classified as to the habitat in which they are found:
    • humans- Anthropophilic
    • animals- Zoophilic
    • free-living saprophytes in soil- Geophilic
  237. Microsporum canis
    ringworm that can live in all mammals

    • 90% of all ringworm in cats
    • 70% of all ringworm in dogs
  238. Diagnosis of Ringworm
    • 1.Wood's Lamp/Light
    • ultraviolet light-if hair infected with Microsporum canis/distortum/audouinii may fluoresce clear apple green in dark room
    • only 50% of cases will do fluoresce

    • 2. Direct Microscopy
    • few hairs&skin scraping placed in drop of 20% KOH on slide, examine under low then high power
    • if positive will see the arthrospores attached to roots of hair