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a source of stress that occurs continuously or repeatedly.
small stressors that might be easy to ignore if they happened only occasionally, can accumulate to produce distress and illness.
how perceived control affects stressful events
anytimes you have control over a situation (or perceived control) it decreases the stress and anxiety.
Three phases of general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
General Adaptation syndrome: a three stage physiological respones that appears regarless of the stressor that is encountered
1) alarm reaction - (mobilize resources) in which the body displays fight or flight response.
- 2) Resistance phase - (cope with stressor) the body adapts to its high state of arousal as it tries to cope with the stressor. shuts down unnecessary processes, such as digestion, growth, and sex drive.
- 3) exhaustion - (reserves depleted) where you've reached your physical and emotional empty
the process of Fight-or-flight response in terms of the HPA axis
- Fight or flight response: an emotional and physiological reaction to an emergency that increases readiness of action.
- HPA axis: Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis
- The Hypothalamus activates the pituitary gland, which in turn activates the adrenal glands to release catecholamines and cortisol, which energize the fight or flight response...
- during a fight or flight, heart rate increases, blood pressure raises, respiration increases... you body is trying to get blood and oxygen to your limbs to prepare you body to fight or flight
Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration rate during the fight or flight response.
all are increased.
Stress on cardiovascular health
because of overworking your heart. you can develop heart disease and heart failure. raises blood pressure, and gradually damages the blood pressure.
Type A and Cardiovascular health
- Type A behavior: a tendency towards easily aroused hostility, impatience, a sense of time urgency, and competitive achievement strivings.
- Significantly higher risk of Heart attack, between 2 to 3 times.
Hippocampal size and ptsd
- people with ptsd have a smaller hippocampal activity.
- study showed that twins where one brother was in the military and the other wasn't showed a strong correlation between smaller Hippocampal size and PTSD
avoiding situation or thoughts that are reminders of a stressor and maintaining an artificially positive viewpoint. Ex: a rape victim avoiding a place where they were raped
Reframing: involves finding a new or creative way to thing about a stressor that reduces its threat.
re-examining a fear or thought and replacing your thinking on it, to feel different about it. ex: shifting a fear of public speaking from the audience evaluating the speaker, to the speaker evaluating the audience
Rational Coping and the three steps to it.
Rational Coping: involves facing the stressor, and working to overcome it.
- three step process
- 1) acceptance: coming to realize that the stressor exists and cannot be wished away
- 2) Exposure: attending to the stressor, thinking about it, and even seeking it out.
- 3) understanding: working to find the meaning of the stressful events.
- Psychosomatic illness: an illness produced by an interaction between mind and body
- the psyche (mind) influences the soma (body) ...
- you have an emotional problem, or mental illness, and it manifest as a physical problem.
- Somatoform disorder: patient displays physical symptoms not fully explained by a general medical condition.
- a person displays unexplained physical symptoms...because the doctor cant figure out whats wrong with them, they decide its in their head... people going blind in one eye, cant use an arm...
- the most well known somatoform is:
a person being preoccupied with minor physical symptoms develops an exaggerated belief that the symptoms signify a life-threatening illness.