Audio Fundamentals pt. 1
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What is the difference between Compression and Rarefaction?
- Compression: Increase in pressure
- Rarefaction: Decrease in pressure.
The main component of PITCH...
It is measured in...
- C.P.S. or Hertz Hz
The formula for Frequency=
Overtones of the fundamental frequency.
What is the main component of LOUDNESS?
RMS stands for and means...
- Root Mean Squared
- The square root of the averages of the squares of the values.
Frequency response is...
Amplitude vs frequency
The most used sound velocity is...
- Velocity divided by frequency
- symbols: Lambda = V/f
Sound travels _____ in _____.
1 ft. in 1 millisecond.
What is Envelope?
The internal dynamics of a sound / changes in amplitude over time.
Envelope is made of four parts:
What is Polarity?
What does it deal with?
A change in voltage direction for electrical waves. A change in compression / rarefaction in acoustic waves.
Phase deals with...
What is it measured with?
A _____ phase shift results in Phase Cancellation. (Destructive)
A _____ phase shift results in Phase Reinforcement. (Constructive)
- 180 degrees
- 0 or 360 degrees
_________ is caused by time delays by path length differences and is a combination of constructive and destructive interference.
Comb Filter Effect
Which wave is simple and pure?
The outer ear includes:
Pinna and auditory canal
What does the pinna do and where is it located?
What does the pinna cause also?
- Catches and focuses the acoustic waves into the ear canal.
- Outer ear
What is the resonant frequency of the ear by the ear canal that we hear best at?
The middle ear includes:
Eardrum, ossicles, and eustachian tube
Ossicles include and are located...
- Hammer, anvil, and stirrup
- Middle ear
The inner ear includes:
Cochlea and semicircular canals
The cochlea includes and is located...
- Oval window
- Basilar membrane
- Hair cells
- Organ of corit
- Round window
What is Tinnitus?
ringing in the ear caused by hearing damage
_______ show the frequency response of our hearing.
What term is used in loudness levels?
- Equal Loudness Curves (Contours)
How many frequency critical bands are there?
Of the weighted measurements for Equal Loudness Curves, A=___ and C=___
- A=40 phon curve
- C=90 phon curve
What is a Beat or Fused Tone?
What are Combination Tones?
2 pure tones with a frequency difference of about 5-15 Hz combined
2 pure tones with a frequency difference greater than the critical bandwidth combined
What is Masking
A louder sound covering a softer sound with a frequency near each other.
What is the Doppler Effect?
When a sound source is moving in relation to the listener, or vice versa, the pitch goes UP as they APPROACH and DOWN as they move AWAY.
ITD and IAD stand for...
Which is used for which frequencies?
- Interaural Time Difference
- Interaural Amplitude Difference
- ITD for 80-800 Hz
- IAD for 1,600 Hz and up
- Between 800-1,600 is both
What is the Cone of Confusion?
Area where all sounds produce the same ITD and IAD.
What are the two parts of the Haas Effect?
The ear/brain will use the first arrival to locate the sound source.
The ear/brain will fuse together sound repetitions that arrive within about 20 milliseconds of each other (temporal fusion).
How is a Phantom Image created?
By sending the same signal at the same amplitude to two speakers.
What does HRTF stand for and what does it mean?
- Heat Related Transfer Function
- A measurement of how the head, ears, and upper body impact the sound arriving in the ear.
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