Card Set Information
Morphogens in Anatomy
Used by Notochord to induce floorplate and by floorplate to induce Motor Neurons
SHH (Sonic Hedgehog)
Released by Motor Neurons to attract/stop Schwann Cells. What is this example of? What receptors does it activate?
Glial Growth Factor (GGF)
Found in Zona Pellucida of egg. Messed up by rise in Ca
ZPA (zona pellucida A)
Stimulated by implantation, maintains progesterone (Maintaining endometrium)
Used in pregnancy tests
HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin)
Makes Ectoderm form Epidermis
Makes Ectoderm form Neural Plate
Inhibited by SHH from epithelium of Digestive Tract
Smooth Muscle Activating Protein (SMAD)
Limit location of submucosal plexus (2x)
SHH and BMP4
Morphogens that stimulate liver development and their locations (x2)
BMP4 from Septum Transversum
FGF from Cardiac Mesoderm (High conc. = Liver, Low conc. = Lungs)
Expression is response to Mesoderm Induction
Produced by notochord to pattern mesoderm. (2x) What do they inhibit?
Chordin + Noggin inhibit BMP
Induces sclerotome from somites?
Induces myotome from dermomyotome?
SHH then Wnt or BMP
Two morphogens which trigger Skeletal Muscle development, and their location of origin. What TFs do they activate? What do these activate?
SHH from Notochord
WNT from Neural Tube
: MyoD1 + Myf5
Maintains proliferation and inhibits myogenesis in myotome. What does it inhibit to prevent myogenesis?
Common to all male determination pathways.
Promotes what? (2x)
Inactivates what? What thing, which normally inhibits this morphogen, does it normally activate?
Promotes AMH (Anti-Müllerian Hormone)
Promotes FGF9 (Maintains SOX9)
Inactivates WNT4, which normally activates DAX1
Induces formation of Primordial Germ Cells. By activating what? (2x)
Activates Prdm1, Prdm2
Promotes mieosis in female PGCs
Prevent meiosis in male PGCs
Mutated in Greig Syndrome. Mimicks what?
Mimicks SHH increase
Mutated in Apert Syndrome. Mimicks what?
Mimicks FGF increase
Mutated in Holt-Oram syndrome
Inhibited by Thalidomide (2x)
ZPA releases. What does this cause mesonchyme to release?
Causes Gremlin release
Expressed by dorsal ectoderm of Limb Bud
Causes digital separation. Inhibited by?
Inhibited by Gremlin
Prevents apoptosis in digital rays