Morphogens

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Author:
jbason
ID:
274448
Filename:
Morphogens
Updated:
2014-05-14 18:17:27
Tags:
Anatomy
Folders:
Anatomy
Description:
Morphogens in Anatomy
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  1. Used by Notochord to induce floorplate and by floorplate to induce Motor Neurons
    SHH (Sonic Hedgehog)
  2. Released by Motor Neurons to attract/stop Schwann Cells. What is this example of? What receptors does it activate?
    • Glial Growth Factor (GGF)
    • Neuroregulin
    • Erb Receptors
  3. Found in Zona Pellucida of egg. Messed up by rise in Ca2+ on fertilisation
    ZPA (zona pellucida A)
  4. Stimulated by implantation, maintains progesterone (Maintaining endometrium)
    Used in pregnancy tests
    HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin)
  5. Makes Ectoderm form Epidermis
    BMP4
  6. Makes Ectoderm form Neural Plate
    Chordin
  7. Inhibited by SHH from epithelium of Digestive Tract
    Smooth Muscle Activating Protein (SMAD)
  8. Limit location of submucosal plexus (2x)
    SHH and BMP4
  9. Morphogens that stimulate liver development and their locations (x2)
    • BMP4 from Septum Transversum
    • FGF from Cardiac Mesoderm (High conc. = Liver, Low conc. = Lungs)
  10. Expression is response to Mesoderm Induction
    Brachyury
  11. Produced by notochord to pattern mesoderm. (2x) What do they inhibit?
    Chordin + Noggin inhibit BMP
  12. Induces sclerotome from somites?
    SHH
  13. Induces myotome from dermomyotome?
    • Complex
    • SHH then Wnt or BMP
  14. Two morphogens which trigger Skeletal Muscle development, and their location of origin. What TFs do they activate? What do these activate?
    • SHH from Notochord
    • WNT from Neural Tube
    • TFs: MyoD1 + Myf5
    • Activate: Myogenin
  15. Maintains proliferation and inhibits myogenesis in myotome. What does it inhibit to prevent myogenesis?
    • FGF
    • Inhibits Msx1
  16. Common to all male determination pathways.
    Promotes what? (2x)
    Inactivates what? What thing, which normally inhibits this morphogen, does it normally activate?
    • SOX9
    • Promotes AMH (Anti-Müllerian Hormone)
    • Promotes FGF9 (Maintains SOX9)
    • Inactivates WNT4, which normally activates DAX1
  17. Specifies ovary
    FOXL2
  18. Induces formation of Primordial Germ Cells. By activating what? (2x)
    • BMP4 
    • Activates Prdm1, Prdm2
  19. Promotes mieosis in female PGCs
    Retenoic Acid
  20. Prevent meiosis in male PGCs
    CYP26B1
  21. Mutated in Greig Syndrome. Mimicks what?
    • GLI3
    • Mimicks SHH increase
  22. Mutated in Apert Syndrome. Mimicks what?
    • FGFR2 
    • Mimicks FGF increase
  23. Mutated in Holt-Oram syndrome
    TBX5
  24. Inhibited by Thalidomide (2x)
    • IGF1
    • FGF2
  25. AER produces
    FGF
  26. ZPA releases. What does this cause mesonchyme to release?
    • SHH
    • Causes Gremlin release
  27. Expressed by dorsal ectoderm of Limb Bud
    Wnt7a
  28. Causes digital separation. Inhibited by?
    • BMP 
    • Inhibited by Gremlin
  29. Prevents apoptosis in digital rays
    Noggin

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