College Now: Intro to Political Science

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College Now: Intro to Political Science
2014-05-14 18:27:12
Chapter5 PoliticalScience CollegeNow
Political Science
Vocabulary from The Challenge of Politics: An Introduction to Political Science (College Now) (Spring 2014)
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  1. Aristocracy
    A privileged, educated, and powerful upper class that rules society. Interpreted by Plato and Aristotle as government by the best.
  2. Balance of Principles
    Edmund Burke’s view of the British constitutions a monarchy directed by laws, balanced by an aristocracy, and controlled by the democracy.
  3. Constitution
    Founding document or documents that spell out the structure and rules of a political system and reflect the political culture.
  4. Democracy
    Rule by the people, usually via elected representatives, under a constitution that provides for the protection of basic rights and majority rule. Interpreted by Plato and Aristotle as government by the poor.
  5. Divine Law
    Law revealed by God and found in scripture that helps humans understand natural law while guiding them toward their supernatural end.
  6. Eternal Law
    The reason of God (“God’s grand design”) by which all things are governed.
  7. General Will
    The constant will of the sovereign people; the public good or public interest that is always right.
  8. Human Law
    Application, in specific circumstances, of natural law in our earthly affairs.
  9. Law
    Rule established by authority or custom; according to Thomas Aquinas, “an ordinance of reason for the common good, promulgated by him who has the care of the community.
  10. Modified laissez-faire political economy
    Economy without government intervention; compatible with liberty, the satisfaction of human needs, and the advancement of individual and social happiness.
  11. Natural Law
    That part of the eternal law known through reason, such as the ability to discern good from evil.
  12. Oligarchy
    Generally understood as govern­ment by the few, especially for corrupt and selfish purposes. According to Plato, it meant government by the rich and money loving.
  13. Polis
    Greek city-state.
  14. Polity
    Constitutional government—a mixture of democracy and oligarchy. Form of government believed by Aristotle to provide the best practicable good life.
  15. Social Contract
    Agreement in which a number of people unite for a common purpose.
  16. Timocracy
    Government by people of honor and ambition.
  17. Tyranny
    lawless rule by one leader.
  18. utilitarianism
    Creed that accepts utility and the search for happiness as its foundation.