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- What is manual babbling?
- Produced between 7-14 months,
- signing babies produce manual babbling similar to spoken language babbling.
Babbling is characterized by:
- it is Meaningless form
- no communicative intent
- repetitive and cyclic
- produced within signing space
- What are some unique characteristics of child-directed signing (“motherese”)?
- Direct manipulation of the linguistic articulators
- signing on the child
- Early ungrammatical facial expressions
Do deaf or hearing babies prefer to watch child-directed signing?
- Both deaf and hearing babies prefer to watch child directed signing.
- Reasons: helps maintain and attract attention/ helps children detect word and clause boundaries
- What is the order of acquisition for the phonological parameters in sign language (easiest to hardest to learn)?
Location, movement, orientation, handshape.
- - Are iconic signs acquired earlier than non-iconic signs?
- NO: Iconic signs are not acquired earlier than other signs.
- How are the milestones of babbling, first words, and first two-word combinations different for deaf babies as compared with hearing babies?
- Do not differ between hearing and deaf babies. Manual and verbal milestones are pretty much the same.
- - Babbling: 6-12 months
- - First words: Around 1 year
- - First two-word combinations: After acquiring a vocabulary of more than 100 items (usually around 18 months)
- Are ASL pronouns acquired early and effortlessly by deaf children?
- No. At around 18 months, they begin to analyze the pointing gesture as a lexical sign.
- Children may initially interpret a point to the chest as someone’s name and an outward point as another name for themselves.
- Correct use of I/You at around 2 years old.
- How are linguistic facial expressions acquired by deaf children?
- Negation:Young children often communicate “no” with a head shake
- @ 1 year: children produce head shakes in response to questions or to reject
- @ 18 months: children start to produce manual negative signs, but without the obligatory headshake
- A 1-8 month delay before negative headshake is added to the manual sign
Negation: Do children recruit early communicative head shakes into their emerging linguistic system?
No: manual negation first occurs without non-manual marking (negation sign produced before the head shake)
- Children initially produce bare manual verbs without facial adverbials
- Children sometimes make errors and the errors indicate children are actively analyzing facial morphemes and understanding their meaning
Do non-manual adverbial markings follow the same acquisition pattern?
Yes: bare manual predicates are produced before adding non-manual facial morphology
WH Questions and Conditionals: Do sentential non-manual morphemes follow the same “hands before faces” pattern?
Yes: structures are first marked manually; scope and timing of the non-manual marker is difficult
manual signs (e.g., WH signs, signs expressing negation)
are produced before children correctly produce non-manual morphemes (e.g., furrowed brows; headshake).
- Is the use of signing space to express co-reference acquired early or late? Why?
- Relatively late:Children must learn to associate references with locations in signing space.
- Children must remember the associations between discourse referents and spatial locations
- Requires symbolic mapping and spatial memory
- What are the linguistic effects of late exposure to language?
Incomplete grammatical knowledge
- What are the cognitive effects of late exposure to language?
- Theory of Mind: understanding that other people have minds and that someone can have a different belief from you.
- - Does age of acquisition have an equal effect on first and second language learning?
- Late ﬁrst language learners
- – Born deaf, exposed to ASL between 9-13 years
- Late second language learners
- – Born hearing, acquired spoken English
- – Lost their hearing between 9-11 years (viral infection)
- – Enrolled in schools for the deaf with signing programs
- Early ﬁrst language learners (ages 5 -8)
- Native learners (deaf signing parents)
- ***EFFECTS OF DELAY MUCH WORSE ON 1ST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
- What are the actual, known benefits of “baby signing”?
There were NO ACTUAL proven benefits.
- How does “baby signing” differ from the way deaf children learn sign language?
Baby signing only teaches words, not grammar and semantics.
- Why is lip reading hard for deaf children? What sounds cannot be read on the lips?
- Voiced and unvoiced sounds look identical: (b, d, g) vs (p, t, k)
- Nasal and non-nasal sounds look identical: m/b, n/d
- Voiced sounds are created by vibrations of the vocal chords within the larynx
- Voiced and voiceless sounds look the same z/s b/p d/t g/k
- Nasal sounds are created by lowering the soft palate so that air escapes through the nose
- Nasal and oral sounds look the same: m/b n/d ng/g (sang/sag)
- What are some factors that are linked to success in spoken language acquisition by deaf children?
- Success in spoken language acquisition tied to:
- Early detection of hearing loss and intervention
- Successful use of hearing aids
- High level of parental involvement in speech training
- Ability to auditorily discriminate speech sounds
- Higher than average non-verbal IQ
- Higher than average socioeconomic status