Card Set Information
- What is manual babbling?
Produced between 7-14 months,
signing babies produce manual babbling similar to spoken language babbling.
Babbling is characterized by:
it is Meaningless form
no communicative intent
repetitive and cyclic
produced within signing space
- What are some unique characteristics of child-directed signing (“motherese”)?
Direct manipulation of the linguistic articulators
signing on the child
Early ungrammatical facial expressions
Do deaf or hearing babies prefer to watch child-directed signing?
Both deaf and hearing babies prefer to watch child directed signing.
: helps maintain and attract attention/ helps children detect word and clause boundaries
- What is the order of acquisition for the phonological parameters in sign language (easiest to hardest to learn)?
Location, movement, orientation, handshape.
- Are iconic signs acquired earlier than non-iconic signs?
NO: Iconic signs are not acquired earlier than other signs.
- How are the milestones of babbling, first words, and first two-word combinations different for deaf babies as compared with hearing babies?
Do not differ between hearing and deaf babies. Manual and verbal milestones are pretty much the same.
: 6-12 months
- First words
: Around 1 year
- First two-word combinations
: After acquiring a vocabulary of more than 100 items (usually around 18 months)
- Are ASL pronouns acquired early and effortlessly by deaf children?
No. At around 18 months, they begin to analyze the pointing gesture as a lexical sign.
Children may initially interpret a point to the chest as someone’s name and an outward point as another name for themselves.
Correct use of I/You at around 2 years old.
- How are linguistic facial expressions acquired by deaf children?
Negation:Young children often communicate “no” with a head shake
@ 1 year
: children produce head shakes in response to questions or to reject
@ 18 months
: children start to produce manual negative signs, but without the obligatory headshake
A 1-8 month delay before negative headshake is added to the manual sign
Negation: Do children recruit early communicative head shakes into their emerging linguistic system?
No: manual negation first occurs without non-manual marking (negation sign produced before the head shake)
Children initially produce bare manual verbs without facial adverbials
Children sometimes make errors and the errors indicate children are actively analyzing facial morphemes and understanding their meaning
Do non-manual adverbial markings follow the same acquisition pattern?
Yes: bare manual predicates are produced before adding non-manual facial morphology
WH Questions and Conditionals: Do sentential non-manual morphemes follow the same “hands before faces” pattern?
Yes: structures are first marked manually; scope and timing of the non-manual marker is difficult
manual signs (e.g., WH signs, signs expressing negation)
are produced before children correctly produce non-manual morphemes (e.g., furrowed brows; headshake).
- Is the use of signing space to express co-reference acquired early or late? Why?
Relatively late:Children must learn to associate references with locations in signing space.
Children must remember the associations between discourse referents and spatial locations
Requires symbolic mapping and spatial memory
- What are the linguistic effects of late exposure to language?
Incomplete grammatical knowledge
- What are the cognitive effects of late exposure to language?
Theory of Mind
: understanding that other people have minds and that someone can have a different belief from you.
- Does age of acquisition have an equal effect on first and second language learning?
Late ﬁrst language learners
– Born deaf, exposed to ASL between 9-13 years
Late second language learners
– Born hearing, acquired spoken English
– Lost their hearing between 9-11 years (viral infection)
– Enrolled in schools for the deaf with signing programs
Early ﬁrst language learners (ages 5 -8)
Native learners (deaf signing parents)
***EFFECTS OF DELAY MUCH WORSE ON 1ST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
- What are the actual, known benefits of “baby signing”?
There were NO ACTUAL proven benefits.
- How does “baby signing” differ from the way deaf children learn sign language?
Baby signing only teaches words, not grammar and semantics.
- Why is lip reading hard for deaf children? What sounds cannot be read on the lips?
Voiced and unvoiced sounds look identical
: (b, d, g) vs (p, t, k)
Nasal and non-nasal sounds look identical
: m/b, n/d
Voiced sounds are created by vibrations of the vocal chords within the larynx
Voiced and voiceless sounds look the same z/s b/p d/t g/k
Nasal sounds are created by lowering the soft palate so that air escapes through the nose
Nasal and oral sounds look the same
: m/b n/d ng/g (sang/sag)
- What are some factors that are linked to success in spoken language acquisition by deaf children?
Success in spoken language acquisition tied to
Early detection of hearing loss and intervention
Successful use of hearing aids
High level of parental involvement in speech training
Ability to auditorily discriminate speech sounds
Higher than average non-verbal IQ
Higher than average socioeconomic status