College Now: Intro to Political Science

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College Now: Intro to Political Science
2014-05-14 20:41:12
Chapter6 PoliticalScience CollegeNow
Political Science
Vocabulary from The Challenge of Politics: An Introduction to Political Science (College Now) (Spring 2014)
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  1. Capitalism
    Economic system marked by private ownership of the means of production and exchange, a market economy, economic competition, free trade, and consumer sovereignty.
  2. Civil Liberties
    rights that allow citizens to evaluate how the government operates and to assess the character and performance of parties and political leaders.
  3. Conservatives
    In the American context, proponents of traditional values and institutions, including private property, enterprise, and family. Generally favor liberty over equality.
  4. Direct Democracy
    Form of democracy in which citizens vote directly on matters of public policy instead of electing representatives.
  5. Due Process
    right that forbids such governmental action as the systematic destruction of a religious group, race, or class or such spurious legal action as a trial based on false evidence or coerced confession.
  6. Equality
    Concept that emphasizes equal political and social rights or the condition of being neither superior nor inferior.
  7. Laissez-faire
    Economic policy in which commerce receives minimum interference from government.
  8. Liberal Democracy
    Constitutional government characterized by popular rule, protection of basic rights, and political and economic competition.  Ex. protecting the rights of minorities and, especially, the individual.
  9. Liberalism
    Modern political ideology that favors government intervention in the interest of public welfare, social justice, and fair play.
  10. Liberals
    In the American context, proponents of liberal democracy who emphasize tolerance, generosity, and a willingness to experiment; advocate progressivism.
  11. libertarians
    In the American context, proponents of liberal democracy who oppose government intervention in economic and personal affairs; believe in the maximization of personal freedom.      OR    a person who believes in the doctrine of free will.
  12. Liberty
    Freedom from slavery, imprisonment, captivity, or any form of unlawful or arbitrary control; the sum of rights of a free individual or group.
  13. Nationalism
    Strong sense of cultural belonging and group loyalty generally used to achieve political, economic, and social freedom.
  14. Nation-State
    Term used by political scientists to label countries.
  15. Pluralist School/ Pluralism
    Political school maintaining that balance in diverse political communities is best achieved through a representative democracy acting in accord with policies that advance the general welfare, while still recognizing that a rough approximation of the public interest emerges from the clash of contending interests.
  16. Political Ideologies
    Beliefs and practices that guide political actors in real political communities.
  17. Popular Sovereignty
    Constitutional rule by the many; also known as republican rule.
  18. Populists
    In the American context, proponents of liberal democracy who favor government intervention in economic affairs and may oppose expansion of some “liberal” personal freedoms.
  19. Representative Government
    Constitutional system in which government leadership is determined, directly or indirectly, by decisions of the electorate.
  20. Republicanism
    Constitutional rule by the many.
  21. State
    legal term for the entity commonly known as a country; requires people, territory, government, and acceptance by the international community.
  22. Unitary Executive
    executive legal theory that asserts that with regard to foreign affairs and national security the president has decisive power.