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- What are the two types of aphasia discussed in class? How is each characterized?
- Nonfluent aphasia (AKA Broca’s Aphasia): characterized by a deficit in language production while language comprehension is spared. Slow and effortful when speaking/signing and they usually omit function words or other grammatical morphemes.
- Fluent Aphasia (AKA Wernicke’s Aphasia): Characterized by impaired language comprehension and fluent productions are mostly devoid of meaning. Produce grammatical morphemes, but with errors and often make phonological errors word choice errors, or invent words.
- Which half of the brain controls the right arm and hand?
The left hemisphere controls the right arm and hand.
- Which half of the brain first receives input from the left visual field?
The right hemisphere receives input from the left visual field.
- Which hemisphere of the brain is critical for language?
Predominantly, the left side is critical for language.
- Does right hemisphere damage cause sign language aphasia?
NO, it causes visual-spatial impairments.
- Does Wernicke’s area (secondary auditory cortex) respond to visual sign input?
- YES. left hemisphere is for language not for speech
- input = wernickes
- production = brocas
- Is Broca’s area involved in sign language production?
YES: Broca’s area is equally active during sign language and speech production
- How do deaf brains and hearing brains differ? How are they the same?
- Yes, they differ:
- Deaf brains have less white matter in auditory cortex
- Auditory cortex is less connected with other areas of the brain for deaf signers
- Deaf and hearing brains do not differ in grey matter volume
- Auditory brain cells are plastic and do not atrophy with congenital deafness
- Deaf and hearing brains both show a leftward asymmetry in auditory cortex (left hemisphere larger than right)
- What are some effects of right hemisphere damage?
RHD impairs the production and comprehension of spatial language. It causes visual-spatial impairments.
- For hearing people, which hemisphere is specialized for recognizing emotional facial expressions?
The right hemisphere is specialized for recognizing emotional facial expressions.
- For deaf people, which hemisphere responds most to linguistic facial expressions?
The left hemisphere responds most.
- Are the same regions of the brain involved in the production of signs and pantomimes?
NO. Sign production recruits Broca’s area (left inferior frontal lobe), gesture/pantomime production recruits superior parietal cortex (SPL).
- Are iconic signs less impaired with aphasia than non-iconic signs?
No: Iconic and non-iconic signs are equally impaired with sign aphasia
- Can sign language and pantomime ability be affected differently by brain damage?
- – Sign production recruits Broca’s area
- – Gesture production recruits superior parietal cortex