- What are the two types of aphasia discussed in class? How is each characterized?
Nonfluent aphasia (AKA Broca’s Aphasia): characterized by a deficit in language production while language comprehension is spared. Slow and effortful when speaking/signing and they usually omit function words or other grammatical morphemes.
Fluent Aphasia (AKA Wernicke’s Aphasia): Characterized by impaired language comprehension and fluent productions are mostly devoid of meaning. Produce grammatical morphemes, but with errors and often make phonological errors word choice errors, or invent words.
- Which half of the brain controls the right arm and hand?
The left hemisphere controls the right arm and hand.
- Which half of the brain first receives input from the left visual field?
The right hemisphere receives input from the left visual field.
- Which hemisphere of the brain is critical for language?
Predominantly, the left side is critical for language.
- Does right hemisphere damage cause sign language aphasia?
NO, it causes visual-spatial impairments.
- Does Wernicke’s area (secondary auditory cortex) respond to visual sign input?
YES. left hemisphere is for language not for speech
input = wernickes
production = brocas
- Is Broca’s area involved in sign language production?
YES: Broca’s area is equally active during sign language and speech production
- How do deaf brains and hearing brains differ? How are they the same?
Yes, they differ:
Deaf brains have less white matter in auditory cortex
Auditory cortex is less connected with other areas of the brain for deaf signers
Deaf and hearing brains do not differ in grey matter volume
Auditory brain cells are plastic and do not atrophy with congenital deafness
Deaf and hearing brains both show a leftward asymmetry in auditory cortex (left hemisphere larger than right)
- What are some effects of right hemisphere damage?
RHD impairs the production and comprehension of spatial language. It causes visual-spatial impairments.
- For hearing people, which hemisphere is specialized for recognizing emotional facial expressions?
The right hemisphere is specialized for recognizing emotional facial expressions.
- For deaf people, which hemisphere responds most to linguistic facial expressions?
The left hemisphere responds most.
- Are the same regions of the brain involved in the production of signs and pantomimes?
NO. Sign production recruits Broca’s area (left inferior frontal lobe), gesture/pantomime production recruits superior parietal cortex (SPL).
- Are iconic signs less impaired with aphasia than non-iconic signs?
No: Iconic and non-iconic signs are equally impaired with sign aphasia
- Can sign language and pantomime ability be affected differently by brain damage?
– Sign production recruits Broca’s area
– Gesture production recruits superior parietal cortex