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- language disorder that affects the ability to communicate.
- Important for speech production; located in left inferior frontal lobe
- A continuous change in one dimension is perceived as a distinct phoneme category.
- Used in classrooms by teachers to make links between signs, words, and printed words. Used in reading instructions.
- Live action techniques from film (zoom in/out). Animation techniques (eyes popping out/ jaw dropping).
Critical (or sensitive) period
-A period of time during an organism's development which the brain is optimally capable of acquiring a specific ability, provided that appropriate environmental stimuli are present.
- Mode of communication in which speech sounds are made visible through different handshapes placed at different locations of the face and upper body.
- - AKA Wernicke’s Aphasia. This includes fluently articulated speech, word choice errors, and the production of function words and grammatical morphemes, but with errors.
- Example: Examiner: How are you today?
- Patient: I feel very well. My hearing, writing have been doing well. Things that I couldn’t hear from. In other words, I used to be able to work. Cigarettes I didn’t know how..Cheesterfeela, for 20 years I can write it.
- Cell bodies that make up the outer layer of the hemisphere (the cerebral cortex). Changes in grey matter (cortex) show learning.
Joint attention (importance to sign vocabulary acquisition)
- Children see the object while learning the sign.
My Third Eye
- deaf actors began to play with language itself (asking each actor to produce diff sign with same handshape), 1973, first time sign was recognized as a language.
- - AKA Broca’s Aphasia. This includes slow effortful speech, “telegraphic speech”, lack of function words, grammatical morphemes, mostly nouns and content words.
- Example: Examiner: What else happened?
- Patient GD: CAR . . . DRIVE . . . BROTHER. . . . DRIVE . . . I . . . S-T-A-D . . . . [Attempts to gesture “stand up”]
Oral tradition in literature
- The spoken retelling and preservation from one generation to next of a people's cultural history and ancestry, often by a storyteller or poet in narrative form.
- Ability to notice, think about, and manipulate speech sounds.
- Simple view of reading: word decoding-mapping print to meaning, word recognition.
Phonological similarity effect
- Printed words that are phonologically similar are confused in memory (Ex. Save/wave vs. touch/couch).
Proximalization of movement in sign language
- - Movement is produced by moving joints that are closest he torso. Proximalization is an aspect of learning a novel motor skill.
- Errors occur because lexical signs normally do not shift referenced spending on the speaker. Pronouns are difficult because their meaning shift.
Simple view of reading -
Word decoding: mapping print to meaning; word recognition.
Language Comprehension: ability to interpret words, sentence structure, and discourse.
Both are necessary and neither alone are sufficient for skilled reading.
“Stacking” error in sign acquisition
- Using the same location for several different referents. Children often make these.d????
Theory of mind
- Refers to the ability to understand that another person can have a belief that is false. Deaf people have a difficult time with Theory of Mind if they don’t receive any language input during the critical period.
- Inability to report or attend to stimuli in the left half of space. RHD (???)
- Important for speech comprehension, near auditory cortex; left superior temporal cortex (language predominantly on left)
- In relation to Deaf brains and hearing brains, Deaf brains have less white matter in the auditory cortex.
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