College Now: Intro to Political Science

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JessicaLin
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274467
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College Now: Intro to Political Science
Updated:
2014-05-14 21:17:36
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Chapter7 PoliticalScience CollegeNow
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Political Science
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Vocabulary from The Challenge of Politics: An Introduction to Political Science (College Now) (Spring 2014)
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  1. Authoritarianism
    Anti-democratic political stance that favors placing political power in the hands of an elite group or a dictator.
  2. Bourgeoisie
    For Marx, the social class composed of modern capitalists, owners of the means of social production, and employers of wage-labor. In general, the middle class in a capitalist society.
  3. Class Struggle
    In the modern period, conflict between the bourgeoisie (capitalist oppressors) and the proletariat (working oppressed).
  4. Communism
    Ideology that upholds equality by demanding an end to private wealth and insisting on public ownership of property and the means of production.
  5. Democratic Socialism
    Ideology committed to popular, constitutional rule and the protection of basic rights while maintaining that key aspects of economic life must be publicly owned, or socially controlled, to ensure an equitable distribution of the community’s wealth.
  6. dialectical change
    a major societal change arising from the clash of two opposing ideas, forces, or social contradictions.
  7. Dictatorship of the Proletariat
    rule, which may sometime be coercive, by the overwhelming majority of worker in their own self-interest.
  8. egalitarianism
    a trend of thought in political philosophy. An egalitarian favors equality of some sort: People should get the same, or be treated the same, or be treated as equals, in some respect.
  9. fabians
    a member or supporter of the Fabian Society, an organization of socialists aiming at the gradual rather than revolutionary achievement of socialism.
  10. Materialism
    the belief that a society's economic structure, which is shaped by the prevailing mode of production (industrial society, for instance), constitute's the foundation upon which that society's superstructure of law, politics, ethics, religion, philosophy, ideology, and art is built.
  11. mixed economy
    one is which both public and private control of industries adheres.
  12. Proletariat
    workers or working-class people, regarded collectively (often used with reference to Marxism).
  13. Revisionists
    shared Marx's general outlook but differed in their economic and political diagnosis.
  14. Totalitarianism
    or totalitarian state is a concept used by some political scientists to describe a political system in which the state holds total authority over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever possible.
  15. utopia
    an imagined place or state of things in which everything is perfect. The word was first used in the book Utopia (1516) by Sir Thomas More.
  16. utopian socialists
    a term used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, and Robert Owen, which inspired Karl Marx and other early socialists.
  17. welfare state
    a system whereby the government undertakes to protect the health and well-being of its citizens, especially those in financial or social need, by means of grants, pensions, and other benefits. The foundations for the modern welfare state in the US were laid by the New Deal programs of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

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