Unit 8/9 Test
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According to the documents and the textbook, do you think people were anti-suffrage for women because of social reason's (women's place in society), or political (men did not want to lose their political positions)? Be able to back up your claim with AT LEAST 3 pieces of evidence (an exemplary answer will connect these examples to previous units to prove understanding).
Choose AT LEAST 3 examples of American modernization
in the 1920s and EXPLAIN WHY these are examples of America moving forward in
the 1920s (an exemplary answer will connect these examples to previous units to
Choose AT LEAST 3 examples of America holding on to antiquated beliefs and EXPLAIN WHY they are examples of America’s stunted growth in the 1920s (again, an exemplary answer will
connect these examples to previous units to prove understanding).
Name and THOROUGHLY explain 2 of FDR’s New Deal programs from your notes. What was it, what problem did it address, and what effect did it have?
Were minority groups (women, African
Americans, Mexican-Americans, Native Americans) better OR worse off under
FDR? Choose TWO groups and explain with AT LEAST 2 reasons that support
What were the driving that led to American imperialism?
Policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weak territories. Wanted to expand size of nation and extend control toward pacific ocean. Join the imperialist powers of Europe. Desire for military strength. Thirst for new markets.
Why did Americans wish to build up their military strength?
Seeing that other nations were establishing a global national military presence, American leaders advised that the United States build up its own military strength. One such leader was Admiral Alfred T. Mahan of the U.S. Navy. Mahan urged government officials to build up American naval power in order to compete with other national powers. As a result of the urging of Mahan and others, the United States built nine steel-hulled cruisers between 1883 and 1890. The construction of the modern battleships such as the Maine and the Oregon transformed the country into the world's third largest naval power.
Why did Americans wish to gain new markets?
In the late 19th century, advances in technology enable American farms and factories to produce far more than American citizens could consume. Now the United States needed raw materials for its factories and new markets for its agricultural and manufactured goods. Imperialists viewed foreign trade as the solution to American overproduction and the related problems of unemployment and economic depression.
Based solely on the textbook's explanation of it, was the U.S.'S acquiring of Alaska an example of imperialism? Why or why not?
No that was not an act of imperialism because the U.S. bought Alaska from Russia paying Russia $7.2 million dollars instead of conquering the land by force (act of imperialism).
How was the American desire for Hawaii as a new American state fueled entirely by a desire for money AND political power? (Explain fully! You will be expected to know HOW and WHY the U.S. annexed Hawaii!)
- Why the U.S. annexed Hawaii- 18/19th centuries; U.S. traders are in contact with Hawaii
- - Americans set up sugar plantations ($, Japanese workers)
- - U.S Government responds to mainland complaints about sugar prices and Congress puts a tax on imported sugar (Tarif)
- - American plantation owners in Hawaii freak out and say "annex Hawaii!"
- - Becomes a state in ten years
What were the 4 main goals of the progressive movement?
The 4 main goals of the progressive movement were protecting social welfare, promoting moral improvement, creating economic reform, and fostering efficiency
What did "protecting social welfare" mean during the the Progressive Era?
What "protecting social welfare" was during the Progressive Era was working to soften some of the conditions of industrialization. The Social Gospel and settlement house movements of the late 1800s, which aimed to help the poor through community centers, churches, and social services, continued during the Progressive Era inspired even more reform activists. The Young Men's Association (YMCA), for example, opened libraries, sponsored classes, and built swimming pools and handball courts. The Salvation army fed poor people in soup kitchens, cared for children in nurseries, and sent "slumbrigades" to instruct poor immigrants in middle-class values of hard work and temperance. Florence Kelly became an advocate for improving the lives of women and children. She was appointed chief inspector of factories for Illinois after she had helped to win passage of the Illinois Factory Act in 1893. The act, which prohibited child labor and limited women's working hours, soon became a model for other states.
What did "promoting moral improvement" mean during the Progressive Era?
What "promoting moral improvement" meant was that some reformers felt that morality, not the workplace, held the key to improving the lives of poor people. These reformers wanted immigrants and poor city dwellers to uplift themselves by improving their personal behavior. Prohibition, the banning of alcoholic beverages, was one sch program. Prohibitionist groups feared that alcohol was undermining American morals. Founded in Cleveland in 1874, the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) spearheaded the crusades for prohibition. The Union was transformed by Frances Willard from a small mid-western religious group in 1879 to a national organization. Boasting 245,000 members in 1911, the WCTU became the largest women's group in the nation's history. Began opening kindergartens for immigrants, visiting inmates in prisons and asylums, and working for suffrage like those of the settlement house movement, provided women with expanded public roles, which they used to justify giving women voting rights.
Why would the prohibition movement appeal to the so many women? (HINT: think back to women's conditions in the 1700- mid 1800s- before the Industrialization in America. How did they support themselves?)
It would appeal to many of the women because many of them had abusive husbands and they blame that on the alcohol. Also they thought that their husbands were drinking the money away by drinking alcohol
What did "creating economic reform" mean during the Progressive Era? WHY did some people think this was needed?
"creating economic reform" meant that when a severe economic panic in 1893 it promoted some Americans to question the capitalist economic system. As A result, some Americans, especially workers, embraced socialism. Labor leader Eugene V. Debs, who helped organize the American Socialist Party in 1901, commented on the uneven balance among the big business, government, and ordinary people under the free-market system of capitalism. Though most progressives distanced themselves from socialism, they saw the truth of many of Debs's criticisms. Big business often received favorable treat from government officials and politicians and could use its economic power to limit competition. Journalist who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life in mass circulation magazines during the early 20th century became known as muskrakers.
What contribution did muskrackers make to the reform movement?
Because they wrote about the corrupt side of business and public they exposed the big businesses dirty secrets the the United States.
What did "fostering efficiency" mean during the Progressive Era?
It meant that many progressive leaders put their faith in experts and scientific principles to make society and the workplace more efficient.
Why did reformers seek to end child labor?
As the number of child workers rose dramatically, reformers worked to protect workers and to end child labor. Businesses hired children because they performed unskilled jobs for lower wages and because children's small hands made them more adept at handling small parts and tools. Immigrants and rural migrants often sent their children as part of the family economy. Often wages were so low for adults that every family member needed to work to pull the family out of poverty. In industrial settings, however, children were more prone to accidents caused by fatigue. Many developed serious health problems and suffered from stunted growth. Formed in 1904, the National Child Labor Committee sent investigators to gather evidence of children working in harsh conditions.They then organized exhibitions with photographs and statistics to dramatize the children's plight. they were joined by labor union members who argued that child labor lowered wages for all workers. These groups pressured national politicians to pass the Keating-Owen Act in 1916. The act prohibited the transportation on across state lines of goods produced with child labor.Two years later the Supreme Court declared the act unconstitutional due to interference with states' rights to regulate labor. Reformers did, however, succeed in nearly every state by effecting legislation that banned child labor and set maximum hours.
What where some of the labor successes of the Progressive Era?
Some labor successes of the Progressive Era was the Child Labor laws, minimizing the work hours and creating minimum wage.
In what ways did the United States become more of a true democracy during this time? (4 ways- make sure you know what they all mean!)
Freedom of speech. The right to amend the state laws and constitution. Change the working hours without violence and to help the lives of the immigrants and the poor.
What where the main areas of work for women at this time?
Farm women, women in the industry, domestic workers, laundresses, cooks, scrub women, and maids.
What was the justification for paying women less money?
Assumed that women were only supporting themselves
What social-economic effects did higher education have on women?
Marriage was no longer a women's only alternative, women entered the work force or sought higher education. In fact, almost half of the college-educated women in the late 19th century never married, retaining their own independence. Many of these educated women began to apply their skills to needed social reforms.
President Truman mentions two "ways of life" in his speech. What two ways of life is he referring to?
He is referring to the way of life of democracy, and communism
Based on the information given here, what might the United States want at the end of WWII?
They want democracy at the end of WWII
Describe what you see happening in this picture.
That Coca Cola is giving the Earth a bottle Coca Cola bottle as if the Earth were a baby drinking from a baby bottle.
What way of life might Coca-Cola represent in this picture?
This picture is trying to represent the way of life of capitalism.
Based on this picture, what do you think the U.S. is trying to achieve after WWII?
Trade, world trade, get more money,make the economy better.
What were the desires the United States had for the world at the end of WWII?
- -Wanted everyone to be under the same form of government-democracy.
- -The United States wanted everyone to be living the American way of life-capitalism
- -To prevent another Great Depression-by trade and jobs.
What were the desires the Soviet Union had for the world at the end of WWII?
- -Spread communism!
- -Some form of reparations for the major loss of military men and citizens
- -Poland was Russia's buffer zone in case the got involved again.
Roosevelt convinced Congress to pass the bill or the 21st amendment that allowed people to buy alcohol again.
People allowed to buy alcohol legally-and do-and this government able to make some quick money.
It did, however, help raise farm prices and put more money in farmers' pockets
Civilian Conservation Corps
Put young men aged 18 to 25 to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, and helping in soil-erosion and flood-control projects. By the time the program ended in 1942, almost 3 million young men had passed through the CCC. The CCC paid a small wage, $30 a month, of which $25 was automatically sent sent home to the workers family. The tremendous program at preventing another Dust Bowl.
Civil Works Administration
Provided 4 million immediate jobs during the winter of 1933-1934. Built 40,000 schools and paid the salaries of more than 50,000 school teachers in America's rural areas. It also built more than half a million miles of roads.
Explain 3 major effects of the Fair Labor Standards Act.
Passed in 1938 by Congress. Maximum hours at 44 hours per week, decreasing to 40 hours after two years. It also set minimum wages at 25 cents an hour, increasing to 40 cents and hour by 1945. In addition, the act set rules for the employment of workers under 16 and banned hazardous work for those under 18. Aid to families with dependent children and the disable. The aid system was paid for by federal funds made available to states.
What did the Social Security Act do?
- -Old-age insurance for retirees 65 or older and their spouses.The insurance was a supplemental retirement plan. Half of the funds came from the worker and half from the employer. Although some groups were excluded from the system, it helped to make retirement comfortable for millions of people.
- -Unemployment compensation system. The unemployment system was funded by a federal tax on employers. It was administered at the state level. The initial payments ranged from $15 to $18 per week.
- -Aid to families with dependent and the disabled. The aid was paid for by federal funds made available to the states.
What steps did women take toward equality in the 1930s?
Frances Perkins became America's first female cabinet member. As secretary of labor, she played a major role in creating the Social Security system and supervised labor legislation. President Roosevelt, encouraged by his wife Eleanor and seeking the support of the women voters, also appointed two female diplomats and a female federal judge.
Overall, how did America feel about women working outside of the home?
They did not like it. A Gallup poll taken in 1936 reported the 82 percent of Americans said that a wife should not work if her husband had a job. The National Recovery Administration, for example, set wage codes, some of which set lower minimum wage for women. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration and the Civil Works Administration hired far fewer women than men, and the Civilian Conservation Corps hired only men.
In what ways was the groundwork laid in the 1930s for the Civil Rights movement? (Your answer should include, but not to be limited to the Black Cabinet.)
During the New Deal, Roosevelt appointed more than 100 African Americans to key positions in government. Mary McLeod-an educator who dedicated herself to promoting opportunities for young African Americans-was one such appointee. Hired by the president to head the Division of Negro Affairs of the National Youth Administration, Bethune worked to ensure that the NYA hired African-American administrators and provided job training and other benefits to minority students. Bethune also helped organize a "Black Cabinet" of influential African Americans to advise the Roosevelt administration on racial issues.
According to this chapter, do you think Mexican-Americans were better or worse off under FDR? (support with evidence)
They were worse off under FDR because the agencies CCC and WPA discriminated against them by disqualifying from their programs migrant workers who had no permanent address.
According to this chapter, do you think African-Americans were better or worse off under FDR? (support with evidence)
African-Americans were better off under FDR because he appointed more than 100 African Americans to key positions in government and allowed them to create a "Black Cabinet" to advise the Roosevelt administration on racial issues.
According to this chapter, do you think Native Americans were better or worse off under FDR?(support with evidence)
- Native Americans were better off under FDR because: 1.) economic-Native American lands would belong to an entire tribe. This provision strengthened Native American land claims by prohibiting the government from taking over unclaimed reservation lands and selling to people other than Native Americans.
- 2.) cultural- the number of boarding schools for Native American children was reduced, and children could attend school on the reservation.
- 3.) political- Tribes were given permission to elect tribal councils to govern their reservations.
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