Sociology CLEP pt 3 sec 10-
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What is the difference between economic traditionalism and economic rationality?
Traditional does things as they have always been done. Rationality looks for better ways to do things to improve productivity
What is the primary sector of the economy?
Extraction of raw materials and natural resources. ex: hunting, gathering, farming, and mining.
What is the secondary sector of the economy?
Turns raw materials into usable goods: cars, furniture, etc
What is the tertiary sector of the economy?
Provides services: health, education, welfare, entertainment
According to Max Weber, what are the 3 types of authority?
- Traditional (based on long-held sacred customs)
- Rational-legal (from body of laws enacted)
- Charismatic (based on abilities associated with a person)
What are the 3 main types of government?
- 1. Authoritarian (rulers tolerate very little opposition to their authority)
- 2. Totalitarian (no limits to authority)
- 3. Democratic (power to the people)
According to Mills in the "Power Elite," who is at the highest level of power? 3 answers
- 1. Warlords
- 2. Corporate Chieftains
- 3. political directorate
Who agreed with C Wright Mills that there is an unequal distribution of power, but rejected the notion that they worked together to maintain the status quo?
David Riesman (Pluralist Vision)
Sociologist use the term profane when studying religion. It refers to what?
Objects, persons, and behaviors that can be understood and altered
Who theorized that protestants would accumulate wealth as a proof of salvation?
A small group of followers surrounding a charismatic leader.
What terms refer to religions featuring one god and those featuring multiple gods?
- 1. Monotheism (Christianity, Judaism, and Islam)
- 2. Polytheistic (Buddhism, Hinduism, and Confucianism)
What is a collective emotional response to tension and anxiety in a group?
What is a collective action caused by the overwhelming feeling and awareness of needing to escape a dangerous situation immediately?
What is a collective behavior where people become obsessed with wanting something because everyone else seems to have it?
What represents a short-term obsession with a behavior that is unexpected and widely copied?
What are widely held beliefs, styles, hair styles, music, dress etc?
What is a piece of unconfirmed public information that may or may not be true?
What is a group that is in close proximity to each other that reacts to a common interest or focus?
What is a group of people who are concerned about the same problem or phenomena without actually being at the same place?
mass or masses
What is a passive crowd that is oriented and responding to a social situation in an orderly and predictable way?
What is a crowd that is easily aroused?
Gustave LeBon established what theory that states an anonymous crowd frees individuals from responsibility and social restraint?
What crowd theory states that individuals possess certain motivations and come together to form a crowd and execute a collective action?
What theory, developed by Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian, states that crowds don't necessarily share the same motives but once formed new norms become adopted and spread throughout the crowd.
Theory that contends that crime is learned through cultural and subcultural norms.
Cultural transmission theory
What is secondary structural assimilation?
Economic and political representation
What is primary structural assimilation?
Family and neighborhood integration
What is considered a dysfunction of a nuclear family?
May be deprived of support from other relatives
What theory suggest that prejudice is passed down from generation to generation because it's so ingrained in the norms and values of a society?
What is a quasi-religious loyalty to a secular state?
When a rundown section of a city has been rejuvenated to become attractive to the middle-class population. this is known as what?
What does the "culture of poverty" provide for?
Explains that poverty stems from cultural forces and not structural ones.
What term refers to the potential number of children a woman can have?
According to Durkheim the sacred is a symbolic representation of what?
Since urban and suburban populations are becoming more alike, more people are moving where?
Why did the extended family decline during industrialization?
Families needed more mobility to move from job to job
During research what type of sample constitutes an accurate reflection of the population?
During research what type of sample provides everyone in a population the opportunity to be selected?
During research what type of sample specifies every nth person to be selected?
During research what type of sampling method uses the differences that already exist in a population as the basis for selecting samples?
According to Durkheim modern societies exhibit what type of solidarity?
According to Durkheim pre-industrial societies exhibit what type of solidarity?
What Robert Merton theory attempts to explain crime when a societies means don't allow everyone to reach the ends?
What theory states that people who speak different languages will also think differently?
What is the absorption into a society through marriage (biological infusion)?
What describes a situation where only a hand full of corporations control an industry?
What are considered 3 of the major social institutions?
- 1. Government
- 2. Education
- 3. Family
W. I. Thomas' "Definition of the situation" relates to people defining moments as real. What sociological theory does this pertain to?
Symbolic interactionist because we attach meaning to moments
Which theory of deviance does primary and secondary deviance belong?
Thomas Malthus was well-known for studying what?
What are the 3 theories of urban development?
- 1. Concentric zone theory
- 2. Multiple nuclei theory
- 3. Sector theory
What links individual experiences to the larger social picture?
Who established the concept of the generalized other, play stage, and game stage?
George Herbert Meade
On average working women earn what percentage of what men earn?
What types of religious movements predict that the world will come to an end?
Sociologist refer to any violation of a law as what?
What refers to the belief that we can improve the human genetic stock?
What refers to the development of super crops that yield more per acre?
The Green Revolution
The study of patterns of change in cities that results from natural selection, competition, and evolution.
Max Weber created these models of social phenomenon which he believed contained the social phenomenon under study.(used to analyze social organizations)
Who established world systems theory?
What are the 3 types of countries in World systems theory?
- 1. Core (dominant, exploit peripheral)
- 2. Peripheral (underdeveloped, depend on core)
- 3. Semi-peripheral (exhibit characteristics of both the other types)
What are Durkheim's 4 types of suicide?
- 1. Egoistic (person feels cut off from society)
- 2. Altruistic (individual and group are too close)
- 3. Anomic (suicide after a sudden occurrence)
- 4. Fatalistic (caused from an overregulation by society ex: slave or servant suicide)
What are the 4 stages of demographic transition theory?
- 1. Death and birth rates are high
- 2. Death rate low increase in population
- 3. Birth rates decline
- 4. Death and birth rates are low
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