Sociology CLEP pt 3 sec 10-

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Sociology CLEP pt 3 sec 10-
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2014-05-16 12:08:10
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Sociology CLEP pt sec 10
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Sociology CLEP pt 3 sec 10-
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  1. What is the difference between economic traditionalism and economic rationality?
    Traditional does things as they have always been done. Rationality looks for better ways to do things to improve productivity
  2. What is the primary sector of the economy?
    Extraction of raw materials and natural resources. ex: hunting, gathering, farming, and mining.
  3. What is the secondary sector of the economy?
    Turns raw materials into usable goods: cars, furniture, etc
  4. What is the tertiary sector of the economy?
    Provides services: health, education, welfare, entertainment
  5. According to Max Weber, what are the 3 types of authority?
    • Traditional (based on long-held sacred customs)
    • Rational-legal (from body of laws enacted)
    • Charismatic (based on abilities associated with a person)
  6. What are the 3 main types of government?
    • 1. Authoritarian (rulers tolerate very little opposition to their authority)
    • 2. Totalitarian (no limits to authority)
    • 3. Democratic (power to the people)
  7. According to Mills in the "Power Elite," who is at the highest level of power? 3 answers
    • 1. Warlords
    • 2. Corporate Chieftains
    • 3. political directorate
  8. Who agreed with C Wright Mills that there is an unequal distribution of power, but rejected the notion that they worked together to maintain the status quo?
    David Riesman (Pluralist Vision)
  9. Sociologist use the term profane when studying religion. It refers to what?
    Objects, persons, and behaviors that can be understood and altered
  10. Who theorized that protestants would accumulate wealth as a proof of salvation?
    Max Weber
  11. A small group of followers surrounding a charismatic leader.
    Cult
  12. What terms refer to religions featuring one god and those featuring multiple gods?
    • 1. Monotheism (Christianity, Judaism, and Islam)
    • 2. Polytheistic (Buddhism, Hinduism, and Confucianism)
  13. What is a collective emotional response to tension and anxiety in a group?
    Mass Hysteria
  14. What is a collective action caused by the overwhelming feeling and awareness of needing to escape a dangerous situation immediately?
    Panic
  15. What is a collective behavior where people become obsessed with wanting something because everyone else seems to have it?
    Craze
  16. What represents a short-term obsession with a behavior that is unexpected and widely copied?
    Fad
  17. What are widely held beliefs, styles, hair styles, music, dress etc?
    Fashion
  18. What is a piece of unconfirmed public information that may or may not be true?
    Rumor
  19. What is a group that is in close proximity to each other that reacts to a common interest or focus?
    Crowd
  20. What is a group of people who are concerned about the same problem or phenomena without actually being at the same place?
    mass or masses
  21. What is a passive crowd that is oriented and responding to a social situation in an orderly and predictable way?
    Audience
  22. What is a crowd that is easily aroused?
    Mob
  23. Gustave LeBon established what theory that states an anonymous crowd frees individuals from responsibility and social restraint?
    Contagion Theory
  24. What crowd theory states that individuals possess certain motivations and come together to form a crowd and execute a collective action?
    Convergence Theory
  25. What theory, developed by Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian, states that crowds don't necessarily share the same motives but once formed new norms become adopted and spread throughout the crowd.
    Emergent-norm theory
  26. Theory that contends that crime is learned through cultural and subcultural norms.
    Cultural transmission theory
  27. What is secondary structural assimilation?
    Economic and political representation
  28. What is primary structural assimilation?
    Family and neighborhood integration
  29. What is considered a dysfunction of a nuclear family?
    May be deprived of support from other relatives
  30. What theory suggest that prejudice is passed down from generation to generation because it's so ingrained in the norms and values of a society?
    Normative Theory
  31. What is a quasi-religious loyalty to a secular state?
    Civil Religion
  32. When a rundown section of a city has been rejuvenated to become attractive to the middle-class population. this is known as what?
    Gentrification
  33. What does the "culture of poverty" provide for?
    Explains that poverty stems from cultural forces and not structural ones.
  34. What term refers to the potential number of children a woman can have?
    fecundity
  35. According to Durkheim the sacred is a symbolic representation of what?
    Society
  36. Since urban and suburban populations are becoming more alike, more people are moving where?
    Rural areas
  37. Why did the extended family decline during industrialization?
    Families needed more mobility to move from job to job
  38. During research what type of sample constitutes an accurate reflection of the population?
    Representative Sample
  39. During research what type of sample provides everyone in a population the opportunity to be selected?
    Random Sample
  40. During research what type of sample specifies every nth person to be selected?
    Systematic sample
  41. During research what type of sampling method uses the differences that already exist in a population as the basis for selecting samples?
    Stratified sample
  42. According to Durkheim modern societies exhibit what type of solidarity?
    Organic
  43. According to Durkheim pre-industrial societies exhibit what type of solidarity?
    Mechanical
  44. What Robert Merton theory attempts to explain crime when a societies means don't allow everyone to reach the ends?
    Strain Theory
  45. What theory states that people who speak different languages will also think differently?
    Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
  46. What is the absorption into a society through marriage (biological infusion)?
    Amalgamation
  47. What describes a situation where only a hand full of corporations control an industry?
    Oligopoly
  48. What are considered 3 of the major social institutions?
    • 1. Government
    • 2. Education
    • 3. Family
  49. W. I. Thomas' "Definition of the situation" relates to people defining moments as real. What sociological theory does this pertain to?
    Symbolic interactionist because we attach meaning to moments
  50. Which theory of deviance does primary and secondary deviance belong?
    Labeling theory
  51. Thomas Malthus was well-known for studying what?
    Population
  52. What are the 3 theories of urban development?
    • 1. Concentric zone theory
    • 2. Multiple nuclei theory
    • 3. Sector theory
  53. What links individual experiences to the larger social picture?
    Sociological Imagination
  54. Who established the concept of the generalized other, play stage, and game stage?
    George Herbert Meade
  55. On average working women earn what percentage of what men earn?
    70
  56. What types of religious movements predict that the world will come to an end?
    Millenarian
  57. Sociologist refer to any violation of a law as what?
    Crime
  58. What refers to the belief that we can improve the human genetic stock?
    Eugenics
  59. What refers to the development of super crops that yield more per acre?
    The Green Revolution
  60. The study of patterns of change in cities that results from natural selection, competition, and evolution.
    Urban ecology
  61. Max Weber created these models of social phenomenon which he believed contained the social phenomenon under study.(used to analyze social organizations)
    Ideal types
  62. Who established world systems theory?
    Wallerstein
  63. What are the 3 types of countries in World systems theory?
    • 1. Core (dominant, exploit peripheral)
    • 2. Peripheral (underdeveloped, depend on core)
    • 3. Semi-peripheral (exhibit characteristics of both the other types)
  64. What are Durkheim's 4 types of suicide?
    • 1. Egoistic (person feels cut off from society)
    • 2. Altruistic (individual and group are too close)
    • 3. Anomic (suicide after a sudden occurrence)
    • 4. Fatalistic (caused from an overregulation by society ex: slave or servant suicide)
  65. What are the 4 stages of demographic transition theory?
    • 1. Death and birth rates are high
    • 2. Death rate low increase in population
    • 3. Birth rates decline
    • 4. Death and birth rates are low

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