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  1. Materialism
    Natural phenomenon are governed by physical laws that impart a predictability/ regularity to the natural world
  2. Empiricism
    Emphasizes on careful observations and collection of data
  3. What aspects must a hypothesis have?
    • Predictive value
    • Testable
    • Falsifiable
  4. Neutrons
    No electrical charge
  5. Protons
    Positive charge
  6. Electrons
    Negative charge
  7. pH measurements are measuring the amount of
    Hydrogen ions
  8. Acidic solutions have pH value of
    Less than 7
  9. Basic solutions have pH value of
    Greater than 7
  10. What are the 7 functional groups?
    • Hydroxyl
    • Carbonyl
    • Carboxyl
    • Amino
    • Sulfhydryl
    • Phosphate
    • Methyl
  11. What are the 4 macromolecules?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic acids
  12. Ester linkage
    Forms a link between a carbohydrate and a fatty acid
  13. Phospholipid
    What makes up any cellular membrane, consists of two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached to a glycerol
  14. What makes up 96% of living matter?
    Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
  15. Primary structure
    Peptide bonds, sequence of amino acids in a protein
  16. Secondary structure
    Alpha helix or beta pleated sheets
  17. Tertiary structure
    Mixture of alpha helix and beta pleated sheets
  18. Quaternary structure
    Mixture of all three orders
  19. What makes up a nucleotide
    Sugar, base, and phosphate
  20. Pyrimidine
    Cytosine, thymine and uracil, have a six membered ring (single ring)
  21. Purine
    Adenine and guanine, six membered ring fused to a five membered ring (two rings)
  22. Prokaryotic cells are characterized by
    • No nuclues
    • DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid
    • No membrane bound organelles
    • Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane
  23. Eukaryotic cells characterized by
    • DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membraneous nuclear envelope
    • Membrane-bound organelles
    • Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus
  24. What are chromosomes made up of?
    Single DNA molecule associated with proteins
  25. Chromatin
    DNA and proteins
  26. Components of the endomembrane system
    • Nuclear envelope
    • Endoplasmic reticulum 
    • Golgi apparatus
    • Lysosomes
    • Vacuoles 
    • Plasma membrane
  27. Mitochondria
    Site of cellular respiration
  28. Glycosidic linkage
    When a disaccharide is formed from a dehydration reaction which joins two monosaccharides
  29. Microtubules
    Thickest, resists compression, has an alpha and beta form, help moderate the movement of cilia and flagella
  30. Intermediate filaments
    Middle-sized structure, support cell shape and hold organelles in places
  31. Microfilaments
    Smallest structure, structural role is to bear tension and resist pulling forces in the cell
  32. Plasmodesmata
    Cytoplasmic bridge in plant cells, used to allow water and small solutes to pass from cell to cell
  33. Tight Junction
    Membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage
  34. Desmosome
    Anchoring junctions, fasten cells together into strong sheets
  35. Gap junctions
    Communicating junctions, provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent animal cells
  36. Catabolic pathways
    Release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds, degredative
  37. Anabolic pathways
    Consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones, synthesis
  38. What does ΔG mean?
    Change in free energy
  39. What does ΔH mean?
    Change in total energy, enthalpy
  40. What does ΔS mean?
    Change in entropy (disorder)
  41. What does T mean?
    Change in temperature in Kelvin
  42. Equation for change in free energy
    ΔG= ΔH - TΔS
  43. Exergonic reaction
    Proceeds with a net release of free energy and is spontaneous, products have less energy than reactants, -ΔG
  44. Endergonic reaction
    Absorbs free energy, non-spontaneous, +ΔG
  45. What is ATP made up of?
    Ribose (sugar), adenine (a nitrogenous base), and 3 phosphate groups
  46. What are the different types of nutritional modes?
    • Chemoautotrophs (Carbon source: inorganic molecule, energy source: organic molecule)
    • Photoautotrophs (carbon source: inorganic molecule, energy source: light)
    • Chemoheterotrophs (carbon source and energy source: organic molecule)
    • Photoheterotrophs (carbon source: organic molecule, energy source: light)
  47. Oxidation
    substance loses electrons
  48. Reduction
    Substance gains electrons
  49. Glycolysis
    First stage of cellular respiration, breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate
  50. Citric Acid Cycle
    2nd stage of cellular respiration, completes the breakdown of glucose
  51. Oxidative phosphorylation
    3rd stage of cellular respiration, accounts for most of the ATP synthesis
  52. How do you form a carbohydrate
    • Carbon source 
    • Electron source
    • Energy source
  53. In photosynthesis, what is the carbon source
  54. In photosynthesis, what is the electron source?
  55. In photosyntesis what is the energy source?
  56. Functions of chromatin
    • Structural or packing proteins (histones)
    • Gene expression
    • Replication 
    • Repair
  57. What are the two elements that make up the maturation promoting factor?
    Cyclins and Kinases
  58. Growth factors
    External signal, proteins release by certain cells that stimulate cells to divide
  59. What are the phases of Interphase
    • G1: first gap; preparation for DNA synthesis
    • S: synthesis; DNA replication
    • G2: second gap
  60. What are the stages of Mitosis
    • Prophase
    • Prometaphase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  61. In photosynthesis, carbon is
  62. In photosynthesis, water is
  63. Equation for cellular respiration
    C6H12O+ 6O--> 6CO+ 6H2O + energy
  64. Flow of energy in cellular respiration
    Glucose --> NADPH --> electron transport chain --> proton-motive force --> ATP
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