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Natural phenomenon are governed by physical laws that impart a predictability/ regularity to the natural world
Emphasizes on careful observations and collection of data
What aspects must a hypothesis have?
- Predictive value
No electrical charge
pH measurements are measuring the amount of
Acidic solutions have pH value of
Less than 7
Basic solutions have pH value of
Greater than 7
What are the 7 functional groups?
What are the 4 macromolecules?
- Nucleic acids
Forms a link between a carbohydrate and a fatty acid
What makes up any cellular membrane, consists of two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached to a glycerol
What makes up 96% of living matter?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
Peptide bonds, sequence of amino acids in a protein
Alpha helix or beta pleated sheets
Mixture of alpha helix and beta pleated sheets
Mixture of all three orders
What makes up a nucleotide
Sugar, base, and phosphate
Cytosine, thymine and uracil, have a six membered ring (single ring)
Adenine and guanine, six membered ring fused to a five membered ring (two rings)
Prokaryotic cells are characterized by
- No nuclues
- DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid
- No membrane bound organelles
- Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane
Eukaryotic cells characterized by
- DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membraneous nuclear envelope
- Membrane-bound organelles
- Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus
What are chromosomes made up of?
Single DNA molecule associated with proteins
DNA and proteins
Components of the endomembrane system
- Nuclear envelope
- Endoplasmic reticulum
- Golgi apparatus
- Plasma membrane
Site of cellular respiration
When a disaccharide is formed from a dehydration reaction which joins two monosaccharides
Thickest, resists compression, has an alpha and beta form, help moderate the movement of cilia and flagella
Middle-sized structure, support cell shape and hold organelles in places
Smallest structure, structural role is to bear tension and resist pulling forces in the cell
Cytoplasmic bridge in plant cells, used to allow water and small solutes to pass from cell to cell
Membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage
Anchoring junctions, fasten cells together into strong sheets
Communicating junctions, provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent animal cells
Release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds, degredative
Consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones, synthesis
What does ΔG mean?
Change in free energy
What does ΔH mean?
Change in total energy, enthalpy
What does ΔS mean?
Change in entropy (disorder)
What does T mean?
Change in temperature in Kelvin
Equation for change in free energy
ΔG= ΔH - TΔS
Proceeds with a net release of free energy and is spontaneous, products have less energy than reactants, -ΔG
Absorbs free energy, non-spontaneous, +ΔG
What is ATP made up of?
Ribose (sugar), adenine (a nitrogenous base), and 3 phosphate groups
What are the different types of nutritional modes?
- Chemoautotrophs (Carbon source: inorganic molecule, energy source: organic molecule)
- Photoautotrophs (carbon source: inorganic molecule, energy source: light)
- Chemoheterotrophs (carbon source and energy source: organic molecule)
- Photoheterotrophs (carbon source: organic molecule, energy source: light)
substance loses electrons
Substance gains electrons
First stage of cellular respiration, breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate
Citric Acid Cycle
2nd stage of cellular respiration, completes the breakdown of glucose
3rd stage of cellular respiration, accounts for most of the ATP synthesis
How do you form a carbohydrate
- Carbon source
- Electron source
- Energy source
In photosynthesis, what is the carbon source
In photosynthesis, what is the electron source?
In photosyntesis what is the energy source?
Functions of chromatin
- Structural or packing proteins (histones)
- Gene expression
What are the two elements that make up the maturation promoting factor?
Cyclins and Kinases
External signal, proteins release by certain cells that stimulate cells to divide
What are the phases of Interphase
- G1: first gap; preparation for DNA synthesis
- S: synthesis; DNA replication
- G2: second gap
What are the stages of Mitosis
In photosynthesis, carbon is
In photosynthesis, water is
Equation for cellular respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
Flow of energy in cellular respiration
Glucose --> NADPH --> electron transport chain --> proton-motive force --> ATP