Dinosaurs

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Author:
Ninimew
ID:
274545
Filename:
Dinosaurs
Updated:
2014-05-15 23:46:14
Tags:
bio
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  1. Diapsids ruled the __ era
    Mesozoic
  2. early diapsids
    • small; lizard-like
    • very diverse: bipeds, quadrupeds, gliders
    • became dominant in the Triassic
  3. Archosaurs
    • diapsid
    • semi-erect posture (not much medial-lateral undulation)
    • gave rise to crocodiles, pterosaurs, and dinosaurs
  4. dinosaurs
    • diapsids
    • evolved from small bipedal Archosaurs
    • erect gait
    • terrestrial
    • diverse range of sizes
  5. 2 major groups of dinosaurs
    • saurischians "lizard hipped"
    • ornithischians "bird hipped"
  6. saurischians
    • dinosaurs that are "lizard hipped"
    • pubis points forward
    • herbivores & carnivores
    • 2 major groups: sauropods & theropods
  7. sauropods
    • group of saurischians with/are:
    • long necks
    • quadrapedal
    • herbivores
    • small weak teeth
    • largest land animal ever
  8. theropods
    • group of saurischians with/are:
    • carnivores
    • obligate bipeds
    • fast and agile
    • sharp teeth
    • big claws (either fore or hind limbs)
    • large eyes = good vision
    • include birds
  9. Coelurosaurs
    • major predatory clade of theropods
    • include:
    • tyrannosaurids
    • ornithimomids
    • maniraptors
  10. ornithischians
    • dinosaurs that are "bird hipped"
    • pubis points backward
    • very diverse group of herbivores
    • include armored dinos, horned dinos and duck-billed dinos
  11. General interpretations of behavior/ecology in the fossil record are made with the assistance of
    • analogy with similar modern animals
    • functional morphology (functions of structures)
    • sedimentary record (environment)
    • trace fossils
    • phylogenetics
  12. Saurapod's digestive system
    • herbivores
    • had weak simple teeth
    • plant material (cellulose) difficult to digest; requires efficient processing
    • utilized gizzard & gastroliths (trace fossils)
  13. Ornithischian's teeth
    massive specialized grinding teeth
  14. Theropod's teeth
    • conical teeth
    • some cerate edges
  15. what trace fossils can tell you about behavior
    • where the animal was active (preferred environment)
    • social behavior (solitary or herds)
    • interaction between species
    • how they walked (locomotion)
    • speed
    • Nests are considered trace fossils.
  16. what eggs tell you about behavior
    • body fossils
    • clutch size
    • parental care-arranged in patterns
  17. Good primary indicators of dinosaur behavior include
    • tracks
    • eggs/nests
    • functional morphology
  18. endothermy
    • internal heat source
    • fast metabolism
    • requires significantly higher metabolic rate: need to eat 20x and breathe 10x moar
  19. ectothermic
    • external heat (environment)
    • slow metabolism
  20. homeothermic
    constant/uniform temp
  21. heterothermic
    variable temp
  22. arguments for endothermy for dinosaurs
    • feathered dinosaurs: Theropods have feathers, thermoregulation (like birds)
    • egg brooding: (nests with parental care)
    • passive thermoregulation: gigantothermy "too big to cool down"
    • high latitudes
    • bone growth rates (bone lamination seen in mammals)
    • oxygen isotopes in bone (oxy16-18 ratios are constant throughout body, which infers homeothermic deposition)
    • specialized dentition/feeding (endothermy requires efficient food processing)
    • erect gait (erect posture = better breathing)

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