endocrine and genital revision

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Author:
jaz_walker
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274578
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endocrine and genital revision
Updated:
2014-05-16 11:50:06
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pathology
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pathrevision
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pathology
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  1. 1. what factor is deficient in kallman's syndrome?
    GnRH
  2. 2. in what order are hormones lost in sheehan's syndrome?
    firstly gonadotrophins, then TSH and ACTH
  3. 3. how do you check LH in males and females?
    in males, normal testosterone, in females, ovulation
  4. 4. how can you be sure FSH reserves are adequate in males and females?
    males have normal spermatogenesis, females are ovulating
  5. 5. what are the first and second most common causes of hyperthyroidism?
    Graves' disease and Plummer's disease (toxic multinodular goitre)
  6. 6. which antibody is most closely associated with Graves' disease?
    TRAbs
  7. 7. what type of immunoglobulin is associated with Graves' disease?
    IgG
  8. 8. which antibody is associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis?
    Thyroid peroxidase antibodies
  9. 9. which disease is associated with Askanazy or Hurthle cells?
    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (eosinophilic epithelial cells)
  10. 10. which malignancy is associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis?
    non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  11. 11. Does subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis cause focal or diffuse infiltration?
    focal
  12. 12. what is the commonest cause of a thyrotoxic goitre?
    Graves disease
  13. 13. what is the commonest form of benign thyroid tumour?
    follicular adenoma.
  14. 14. what disease is associated with orphan annie nuclei and what is prognosis?
    papillary adenocarcinoma (excellent prognosis)
  15. 15. where is spread of a follicular adenocarcinoma to?
    bones, lungs, brain
  16. 16. what is treatment for follicluar adenocarcinoma?
    good, due to targeted radiotherapy (take up radioactive iodine)
  17. 17. what disease is associated with anaplastic carcinoma?
    multinodular goitre
  18. 18. what cells do medullary thyroid carcinomas originate from and what is secreted by them?
    parafollicular C cells (secrete calcitonin, but may also secrete serotonin)
  19. 19. how does hypercalcaemia affect muscle excitability?
    causes weakness and tiredness
  20. 20. what congenital disease leads to absence of parathyroid gland?
    diGeorge syndrome, alongside absence of thymus (due to third and fourth branchial arch loss)
  21. 21. embryonically, what tissue is adrenal cortex derived from?
    mesoderm
  22. 22. embryonically, what tissue is medulla derived from?
    neuroectoderm
  23. 23. what disease is caused by adrenal cortical adenomas and what is the characteristic picture for this?
    conn's syndrome (raised, sodium, decreased potassium)
  24. 24. how does hyperkalaemia affect muscle excitability?
    more excitable.
  25. 25. what are the causes of hyperaldosteronism?
    primary (conn's syndrome), or secondary (due to increased renin from renal tumours or oedema)
  26. 26. what is the action of spironolactone?
    aldosterone antagonist
  27. 27. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome may be associated with which genetic syndrome?
    MEN 1 syndorme
  28. 28. what is the most common cause of bacterial vaginosis?
    gardnerella vaginalis
  29. 29. what kind of cancer is the most common tumour of the vulva and what disease is associated?
    squamous cell carcinoma, which is associated with lichen sclerosis
  30. 30. what cancer is the most common tumour of the vagina?
    secondary cancer of the cervix (also endometrium or ovary)
  31. 31. what is the most common type of cancer of the cervix?
    squamous cell carcinoma, which is associated with lichen sclerosis
  32. 32. what is the most common type of endometrial carcinoma?
    adenocarcinoma
  33. 33. what are the highest risks for endometrial carcinoma?
    high oestrogen (obesity, diabetes, late menopause), pelvic irradiation, low parity.
  34. 34. what are risk factors for suppurativ salpingitis?
    pregnancy, endometritis, IUD insertion, STD
  35. 35. what are the 2 causes of multiple follicular cysts?
    mild endometial hyperplasia, pcos
  36. 36. what is the most common type of ovarian tumour?
    surface epithelial stromal tumours
  37. 37. what are the first trimester causes of spontaneous abortion?
    abnormal fetus e.g. chromosomal, transplacental infection
  38. 38. what are the second trimester causes of spontaneous abortion?
    uterine abnormalities e.g. cervical incompetence, submucosal leiomyoma
  39. 39. what are the third trimester causes of spontaneous abortion?
    maternal abnormalities e.g. endocrine abnormalities
  40. 40. what is the definition of pre-eclampsia?
    high bp (>140/90), peripheral oedema and proteinuria in pregnancy in a woman whose blood pressure was originally normal.
  41. 41. what are risk factors for pre-eclampsia?
    first pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, medical comorbities, extreme age, family history
  42. 42. what are the features of eclampsia?
    convulsions, neuro signs, shock, intracerebral haemorrhage, DIC
  43. 43. what tissue is hydatidiform mole?
    trophoblast
  44. 44. what tissue is choriocarcinoma?
    trophoblast
  45. 45. what is the lay term for condyloma acuminatum and what causes them?
    genital warts (hpv 6 + 11)
  46. 46. what is the commonest cancer of the penis?
    squamous cell carcinoma
  47. 47. at what age do the testes migrate down?
    7 months gestation
  48. 48. what are the 3 forms of cryptorchidism?
    abdominal testicle, inguinal testicle, retractile testicles (most common, settles at puberty)
  49. 49. what are the complications of cryptorchidism?
    infertility, malignancy, inguinal hernia (due to patent tunica vaginalis), testicular torsion.
  50. 50. what is the commonest cause of scrotal swelling?
    hydrocele
  51. 51. what is the possible aetiology of a hydrocoele?
    congenitally patent processus vaginalis, secondary (to tumours, epididymitis, mumps), idiopathic
  52. 52. what is the commonest type of malignant testicular tumour and what is it derived from?
    seminoma (derived from sperm)
  53. 53. what are the 3 types of seminoma?
    classic (fibrous septa with lymphocytic infiltrate), spermatocytic, anaplastic
  54. 54. what is the male equivalent of choriocarcinoma and which markers exist?
    malignant teratoma trophoblastic - AFP and hCG are markers.
  55. 55. what are symptoms of an interstitial (Leydig) tumour?
    precocious puberty in children, or gynaecomastia/libido changes in adults.
  56. 56. what is the commonest lymphoma of testes?
    non-Hodgkin's b cell lymphoma
  57. 57. What disease is associated with Gamna-Gandy nodules?
    congestive splenomegaly

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