inflammation and CNS revision

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inflammation and CNS revision
2014-05-16 12:01:14
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  1. 1. are astrocytomas more common in adults or children?
  2. 2. how are medulloblastomas treated?
  3. 3. how can carcinoid syndrome affect the heart?
    can cause carcinoid heart disease. Causes endocardial fibrosis of the tricuspid and pulmonary valves.
  4. 4. how is friedreich's ataxia inherited?
    autosoal recessive
  5. 5. how is HNPCC inherited and which gene is implicated?
    autosomal dominant, MSH2 or MLH1 (DNA mismatch genes)
  6. 6. how long does it take for cerebral infarct to be visible to the naked eye?
    About 24 hours
  7. 7. in which people does monckeber'ss medial calcific sclerosis occur and which layer of artery does this affect??
    older individuals, media is affected (size of lumen is unaffected)
  8. 8. what are aschoff's nodules?
    signs of rheumatic heart disease (multinucleate giant cells)
  9. 9. what are the 3 causes of congenital hydrocephalus?
    arnold chiari, dandy walker alformations and cerebral aquaduct stenosis.
  10. 10. what are the comonest 4 causes of hypercoagulability?
    antithrombin 3 deficiency, protein C deficiency, factor 5 leiden, prothrombin G20210A
  11. 11. what are the signs of horner's syndrome?
    pupil constriction, partial ptosis, anhidrosis
  12. 12. what cancer is associated with htlv?
    t cell leukaemia
  13. 13. what cancers are vinyl chloride associated with?
    liver angiosarcoa
  14. 14. what group of gram positive cocci produce catalase?
    staphylococcus produce catalase. Strep do not.
  15. 15. what is nuclear pleomorphism?
    variation in shape and size of cells and nuclei.
  16. 16. what is the commonest origin of brain abscesses?
    middle ear infection causing temporal lobe and cerebellar abscesses
  17. 17. what is the most common congenital cause of t cell deficiency?
    diGeorge syndrome
  18. 18. what is the usual disease caused by rickettsiae?
    haemorrhagic vasculitis
  19. 19. what kind of protein is transcribed by c-myc?
    nuclear binding proteins
  20. 20. what kind of protein is transcribed by src?
    tyrosine kinase
  21. 21. what mediates guillian barre syndrome?
    t lymphocytes
  22. 22. what metabolic effects do tumour necrosis factors have?
    stimulate adipose and muscle catabolism
  23. 23. where are platelet activation factors released from/
    mast cells and neutrophils during degranulation
  24. 24. which 3 cell types are most involved in chronic inflamation?
    lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages
  25. 25. Which are the cancers which most commonly spread to bone?
    bronchus, breast, thyroid, kidney, prostate
  26. 26. which cancer are aromatic amines associated with?
  27. 27. which cancer is aflatoxin associated with?
  28. 28. which cancer is associated with arsenic?
  29. 29. which cancer is associated with nickel?
  30. 30. which cells are activated by interferons?
    macrophages and natural killer cells
  31. 31. which cells are involved in a neurofibroma?
    neural crest cells from epineuriu and endoneurium
  32. 32. which cells are malignantly transformed in phaeochromocytoma?
  33. 33. which cells release nitric oxide and what is its effect on vessels?
    vasodilator released fro endothelial cells and macrophages
  34. 34. which clotting factor activates the kinin system?
    factor 7
  35. 35. which layer of the vessel is affected in atheromatous change?
  36. 36. which parts of the heart are inflamed in rheumatic heart disease?
  37. 37. which protein is abnormal in li fraueni syndrome?
  38. 38. which protein produced by hpv inactivates p53?
  39. 39. which syndromes are associated with phaeochromocytoma?
    MEN2, von Recklinghausen's disease, von Hippel-Lindau
  40. 40. which viruses commonly cause viral meningitis?
    enteroviruses (echoviruses, coxsackie, polio), mumps
  41. 41. why do people with chronic renal failure get neuropathy
    due to uraemia. Usually glove and stocking distribution, dialysis improves symptoms.