BASICS OF CHEMISTRY

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SkinCareSpecialist
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274583
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BASICS OF CHEMISTRY
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2014-05-16 15:08:26
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BASICS CHEMISTRY
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BASICS OF CHEMISTRY
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  1. is the science that deals with the composition, structure, and properties of matter and how matter changes under different conditions
    chemistry
  2. is the study of substances that contain the element carbon
    organic chemistry
  3. ____ compounds are flammable and will burn
    organic
  4. is the branch of chemistry dealing with compounds that do not contain the element carbon, but may contain the element hydrogen
    inorganic chemistry
  5. ____ substances are not flammable and will not burn because they do not contain carbon
    inorganic
  6. any substance that occupies space and has mass (weight)
    matter
  7. all matter exists in one of three different physical forms: solid, liquid, and gas
    states of matter
  8. is the simplest form of chemical matter and cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without a loss of identity
    elements
  9. are the particles from which all matter is composed and is the smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of that element
    atoms
  10. is formed by joining two or more atoms chemically
    molecules
  11. are characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that do not cause a chemical change in the identitiy of the substance
    physical properties
  12. are characteristics that can be determined only with a chemical reaction and that cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance
    chemical properties
  13. the addition of oxygen or the loss of hydrogen, creates a chemical change in the identity of the substance
    oxidation
  14. is a change in the form or physical properties of a substance without the formation of a new substance
    physical change
  15. is a change in the chemical composition of a substance, in which a new substance or substances are formed having properties different from the original
    chemical change
  16. are a combination of two or more atoms of different elements united chemically with a fixed chemical composition, definite proportions, and distinct properties
    chemical compounds
  17. are a combination of two or more substances that are united physically, in any proportions with combined properties
    physical mixtures
  18. substance that causes or speeds up a reaction such as heat
    catalyst
  19. pH
    potential hydrogen
  20. is a measure of the acidity and alkalinity of a substance
    pH scale
  21. the pH scale has a range of...
    0 to 14, 7 being neutral, below 7 is ACIDIC and above 7 is ALKALINE
  22. is an atom or molecule that carries an electrical charge
    ion
  23. causes an atom or molecule to split in two, creating a pair of ions with opposite electricalo charges
    ionization
  24. an ion with a negative electrical charge
    anion
  25. an ion with a positive electrical charge
    cation
  26. the natural pH of the skin is slightly acidic at ____
    5.5
  27. ____ occur when an acid is mixed with alkali in equal proportions to neutralize each other and form water
    acid-alkali neutralization reactions
  28. a chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized
    oxidation-reduction
  29. is the subtraction of oxygen or the addition of hydrogen
    reduction
  30. is the rapid oxidation of a substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light
    combustion
  31. are used to stabilize skin care products by preventing oxidation that would otherwise cause a product to turn rancid and decompose
    antioxidants
  32. antioxidants prevent oxidation by neutralizing ____
    free radicals
  33. are stable physical mixtures of two or more substances
    solutions
  34. is any substance that is dissolved by a solvent to form a solution
    solute
  35. is any substance that dissolves the solute to form a solution
    solvent
  36. capable of being mixed; liquids that are mutually soluble, meaning that they can be mixed together to form stable solutions
    miscible
  37. liquids that are not capable of being mixed together to form stable solutions
    immiscible
  38. unstable mixtures of two or more immiscible substances...
    suspensions
  39. are mixtures of two or more immiscible substances united with the aid of an emulsifier
    emulsions
  40. are used to emulsify oil and water to create an emulsion; increases product spreadability
    surfactants
  41. oil droplets dispersed in a water with the aid of an emulsifying agent
    oil-in-water emulsion
  42. droplets of water dispersed in an oil
    water-in-oil emulsion
  43. all carbohydrates are made up of sugar units called
    saccharides
  44. refers to a reaction that takes place in the presence of oxygen
    aerobic
  45. a hydrocarbon molecule that has hydroxyl group bonded to it; it is made of carbon and hydrogen atoms
    alcohol
  46. prefix that means two
    di
  47. a protein that is involved as a catalyst in a chemical reaction
    enzyme
  48. prefix that refers to fats, lipids, or waxes
    lipo
  49. prefix that means one
    mono
  50. prefix that means many
    poly
  51. prefix refers to protein
    proteo

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