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2014-05-16 12:07:00
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  1. 1. what is the prognosis of infantile eczema?
    50% clear by 5 years and 90% clear by 12 years
  2. 2. what is a kaposi's sarcoma?
    a bluish brown plaque from proliferation of small blood vessels and spindle cells in dermis. Associated with herpes virus 8
  3. 3. what is bowen's disease?
    a carcinoma on the lower leg of elderly women. Lighly pigmented plaque, often full thickness. Can transform to scc.
  4. 4. what is a macule?
    a flat area of altered skin colour
  5. 5. what is a blister?
    a fluid filled space caused by seperation of cells and leakage of plasma.
  6. 6. what is a dermatofibrosarcoma?
    a locally invasive dermal tumour of proliferating myofibroblasts
  7. 7. what is a nodule?
    a papule over 5mm. Can be solid or oedematous
  8. 8. what is a plaque?
    a plateau like elevation, more than 20 mm in diameter
  9. 9. what is a papule?
    a raised solid lesion under 5mm
  10. 10. what is mycosis fungoides?
    a slowly progressive T cell lymphoma (cut
  11. 11. what is a scale?
    a thickened, horny layer of keratin, caused by inflammation and disturbed keratinisation.
  12. 12. what is a wheal?
    a transitory, compressible papule or plaque.
  13. 13. what is erysipelas and which organism causes it?
    acute, erythematous superficial cellulitis caused by step pyogenes.
  14. 14. who is mostly affected by discoid eczema?
    alcohol drinking young men and limbs of elderly men
  15. 15. what are the causes for patchy hair loss?
    alopecia areata, infections (ringworm, syphilis), trauma
  16. 16. what is pemphigus?
    an autoimmune disorder with blisters on the skin and in the mouth. Potentially life threatening.
  17. 17. what is the aetiology of bullous pemphigoid?
    autoimmune (in elderly). IgG antibodies on basement membrane.
  18. 18. how is pku inherited?
    autosomal recessive
  19. 19. what drugs can precipitate psoriasis?
    b blockers, lithium, antimalarials
  20. 20. what is the commonest type of malinant skin cancer and how malignant it is?
    basal cell carcinoma - locally very invasive, but rarely metastasize.
  21. 21. what is nail-patella syndrome?
    congenital absence of nails and patellae
  22. 22. what is acanthosis?
    diffuse thickening of the epidermis, due to a thicker prickle cell layer.
  23. 23. what are the 4 arthritic complications of psoriasis?
    distal arthritis, rheumatoid like arthritis, arthritis mutilans, ankylosing spondylitis.
  24. 24. what are the 3 cardinal signs of acute eczema?
    erythema, fluid filled vesicles and erythematous lesions
  25. 25. what is hypertrichosis?
    excessive hair growth in a non-androgenic distribution
  26. 26. how is pigmentation affected in someone with pku?
    fair hair and skin due to impaired melanin synthesis
  27. 27. which syndrome has the highest risk for malignant melanoma?
    familial dysplastic naevus syndrome
  28. 28. what is ecythema?
    full thickness infection of epidermis
  29. 29. what organism causes verrucae?
  30. 30. What is the aetiology of dermatitis herpetiformis?
    IgA deposition. Associated with coeliac diseae.
  31. 31. what is lentiginous?
    increased pigmentation due to increased numbers of melanocytes
  32. 32. With Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, you note perioral lentigines. What else might you look for?
    intestinal polyps
  33. 33. what does onchocerciasis cause?
    itchy skin lesions, river blindness
  34. 34. what is larva migrans?
    larvae burrow through feet, leaving itchy tracks. Goes spontaneously after a few weeks.
  35. 35. squamous cell carcinoma easter egg
    locally invasive and may metastasize
  36. 36. what is a acantholysis?
    loss of cellular cohesion due to rupture of intercellular bridges. Often with bullae
  37. 37. whatare the 3 genera of dermatophytes?
    microsporum, thrichophyton, epidermophyton
  38. 38. what are the 3 types of basal cell carcinoma?
    nodular (most common), superficial, morpheic
  39. 39. what is trichomycosis axillaris?
    overgrowth of corynebacteriae, forming yellow concretions on axillary hair.
  40. 40. what is pitted keratolysis?
    overgrowth of micrococci, particularly in humid, dry areas.
  41. 41. what is alopecia areata and who gets it?
    patchy hair loss, associated with Down's
  42. 42. what is koebner's phenomenon
    psoriasis caused by trauma to skin
  43. 43. what is pachyonychia congenita?
    rare autosomal dominant condition causing thickened, discoloured nails from birth
  44. 44. what is the malignancy of keratoacanthoma?
    self limiting.
  45. 45. is psoriatic arthropathy seropositive or seronegative?
  46. 46. what are racket nails?
    short, broad thumb nails
  47. 47. What is a campbell de morgan spot?
    small, bright-red papule, of benign capillary proliferations.
  48. 48. what organism causes necrotizing fasciitis?
    strep pyogenes
  49. 49. what is the commonest type of malignant melanoma?
    superficial spreading melignant melanoma.
  50. 50. what are the 4 types of malignant melanoma?
    superficial spreading, lentigo, acral lentiginous, nodular
  51. 51. what is management for rosacea?
  52. 52. where are the commonest sites of malignant melanoma?
    the back on males, the lower leg on women
  53. 53. what is a lichenification?
    thickening of epidermis, with exaggeration of normal skin creases.
  54. 54. a 81 year old woman presents with a hand lesion about 1cm across which bleeds when rubbed. It shows hyperkeratosis. What are you concerned about?
    This is an actinic keratosis - consider transformation into squamous cell carcinoma
  55. 55. what type of hypersensitivity reaction is allergic contact dermatitis.
    type IV hypersensitivity