Card Set Information
Approx dist. from surface to center of earth?
Which layer in Earth does not transmit S waves?
What element makes up most earths core?
What drives plate tectonics?
Who proposed theory Continental Drift?
What is an example of a transform plate boundary?
San Andreas Fault
What type of seismic wave will arrive at seismograph first?
Energy released during a magnitude 8 earthquake?
900 times greater than energy released during mag 6 earthquake
What element aids in controlling magma viscosity?
Which statement best describes state of earthquake prediction?
Scientist cannot yet accurately predict most earthquakes
What type of volcano is created when andesitic lavas are extruded?
Mount St Helens is an example of what type of volcano?
Andrija Mohorovicic's major contribution to geology?
evidence that interior of earth is layered
Cleavage in reference to a mineral?
Planes of weakness in a mineral
Mauna Loa is an example of what type of volcano?
Types of physical weathering?
Unloading, root wedging, frost wedging, animal activity
Sierra nevadas are generally composed of what type of rock?
slow cooling magma results in formation of?
A shield volcano looks like what?
large, gently sloping mound composed of basaltic lava flows
Three main rock types
igneous, metamorphic, sedementary
Richter magnitude scale is a measure of what?
Richter scale does not directly measure what?
Extent of building damage
Texture in metamorphic rocks that involves parrallel alignment of elongate minerals
strongest chemical bonds are called?
two main agents of metamorphism are what?
heat and pressure
Diamond and graphite are both composed of carbon but have different physical properties. What explains the difference?
Diamonds are covalently bonded in all directions, graphite has covalent bonds but also has van der Waal's bonds
Geologic time periods
Precambrian (age of invertebrates)
Mesozoic( age of dinosaurs)
Cenozoic (age of mammals)
youngest layer is on top
anything cutting across a rock is younger than what it is cutting
age of inclusions
an inclusion is older than the rock around it
Most abundant gas in the atmosphere
increase in altitude in trophosphere causes
decrease in air temperature
boundary between trophosphere and stratosphere
triatomic form of oxygen O
Ozone filters what?
Ultraviolet radiation and sunlight
ozone is concentrated where?
Lowest layer of atmosphere?
Almost all clouds and storms occur where?
Oceans cover how much of earth's surface?
Clouds that produce precipitation are called?
Thunder and lightning assoc. with which clouds?
Likely to have highest relative humidity when?
temperature at which water vapor condenses to a liquid
change of state from a gas to a liquid is called?
term sublimation describes?
conversion of a solid directly to gas w/o passing through a liquid state
process of converting a liquid to a vapor is termed?
standard sea level pressure in milibars?
lines on a weather map connecting places of equal air pressure are called?
closely spaced isobars indicate?
if stormy weather is approaching pressure tendency would be dropping or increasing?
which winds affect us?
A cT air mass
Continental tropical - warm and dry
cP air mass
Continental Polar- cold and dry
mP air mass
maritime polar - cold and wet
maritime tropical- warm and wet
Cities closest to a body of water have less or more variation in temp?
cold fronts are shown by?
a line with triangular points on one side
warm fronts shown by
a line with semicircles extending from one side
focus of an earthquake? epicenter?
spot in crust where earthquake starts
geographical location of earthquake
Physical prop. of min.
hardness, luster, cleavage, streak, crystal form, taste, color
Why seasons on earth?
tilt of earth and rotation of earth around the sun
How moon formed?
collided with earth and splashing material into space that did not escape earth's gravitational pull and it coalesced into a moon
terrestrial planets are like what?
Earths sister planet
What are saturn's rings composed of?
ice, dust, and rock
Largest planet in our solar system?
Largest volcano in our solar system?
Where is asteroid belt located?
Between Mars and Jupiter
What is a light year?
distance that light travels during time Earth revolves around the sun once
Scale used to describe tornadoes?
Scale to describe hurricanes?
What is an astronomical unit?
distance from earth to the sun
Three types of heat transfer?
Conduction, convection, radiation
Four states of matter?
solid, liquid, gas, plasma
Order of the planets?
M V E M J S U N
Hoe do Igneous rocks become sedimentary rocks?
sediments are dropped from wind and make a layer that is buried under other sediments. Sediments become cemented together
Sedimentary rock changes to meatmorphic rock
gets buried deep in earth and is baked by heat and pressure, becomes a new rock
Metamorphic to sedimentary rocks
weathered and eroded, and minerals carried by wind or water deposited into sediment beds cemented together to become sedimentary rock
If metamorphic rock is melted and becomes magma?
the magma cools and hardens into igneous rock
Rock cycle summary
begins as igneous, erode into sedimentary, change into metamorphic, melt back to magma and repeat process again
Change of state from a solid to a liquid is called?
Gas to a solid