Geology 9

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Shandon
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274610
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Geology 9
Updated:
2014-05-19 16:18:09
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Geology
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Final Exam
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  1. Approx dist. from surface to center of earth?
    6400 km
  2. Which layer in Earth does not transmit S waves?
    Outer Core
  3. What element makes up most earths core?
    Iron
  4. What drives plate tectonics?
    Convection
  5. Who proposed theory Continental Drift?
    Alfred Wegener
  6. What is an example of a transform plate boundary?
    San Andreas Fault
  7. What type of seismic wave will arrive at seismograph first?
    P Wave
  8. Energy released during a magnitude 8 earthquake?
    900 times greater than energy released during mag 6 earthquake
  9. What element aids in controlling magma viscosity?
    Silica
  10. Which statement best describes state of earthquake prediction?
    Scientist cannot yet accurately predict most earthquakes
  11. What type of volcano is created when andesitic lavas are extruded?
    Composite
  12. Mount St Helens is an example of what type of volcano?
    Composite
  13. Andrija Mohorovicic's major contribution to geology?
    evidence that interior of earth is layered
  14. Cleavage in reference to a mineral?
    Planes of weakness in a mineral
  15. Mauna Loa is an example of what type of volcano?
    Shield
  16. Types of physical weathering?
    Unloading, root wedging, frost wedging, animal activity
  17. Sierra nevadas are generally composed of what type of rock?
    granite
  18. slow cooling magma results in formation of?
    large crystals
  19. A shield volcano looks like what?
    large, gently sloping mound composed of basaltic lava flows
  20. Three main rock types
    igneous, metamorphic, sedementary
  21. Richter magnitude scale is a measure of what?
    energy released
  22. Richter scale does not directly measure what?
    Extent of building damage
  23. Texture in metamorphic rocks that involves parrallel alignment of elongate minerals
    foliation
  24. strongest chemical bonds are called?
    covalent
  25. two main agents of metamorphism are what?
    heat and pressure
  26. Diamond and graphite are both composed of carbon but have different physical properties. What explains the difference?
    Diamonds are covalently bonded in all directions, graphite has covalent bonds but also has van der Waal's bonds
  27. Geologic time periods
    • Precambrian (age of invertebrates)
    • Mesozoic( age of dinosaurs)
    • Cenozoic (age of mammals)
  28. Superposition
    youngest layer is on top
  29. cross-cutting
    anything cutting across a rock is younger than what it is cutting
  30. age of inclusions
    an inclusion is older than the rock around it
  31. Most abundant gas in the atmosphere
    Nitrogen
  32. increase in altitude in trophosphere causes
    decrease in air temperature
  33. tropopause?
    boundary between trophosphere and stratosphere
  34. triatomic form of oxygen O3 known as?
    ozone
  35. Ozone filters what?
    Ultraviolet radiation and sunlight
  36. ozone is concentrated where?
    stratosphere
  37. Lowest layer of atmosphere?
    trophosphere
  38. Almost all clouds and storms occur where?
    Trophosphere
  39. Oceans cover how much of earth's surface?
    About 70%
  40. Clouds that produce precipitation are called?
    Nimbus
  41. Thunder and lightning assoc. with which clouds?
    cumulonimbus
  42. Likely to have highest relative humidity when?
    sunrise
  43. dew point
    temperature at which water vapor condenses to a liquid
  44. change of state from a gas to a liquid is called?
    condensation
  45. term sublimation describes?
    conversion of  a solid directly to gas w/o passing through a liquid state
  46. process of converting a liquid to a vapor is termed?
    evaporation
  47. standard sea level pressure in milibars?
    1013mb
  48. lines on a weather map connecting places of equal air pressure are called?
    isobars
  49. closely spaced isobars indicate?
    high winds
  50. if stormy weather is approaching pressure tendency would be dropping or increasing?
    dropping
  51. which winds affect us?
    westerlies
  52. A cT air mass
    Continental tropical - warm and dry
  53. cP air mass
    Continental Polar- cold and dry
  54. mP air mass
    maritime polar - cold and wet
  55. mT mass
    maritime tropical- warm and wet
  56. Cities closest to a body of water have less or more variation in temp?
    less
  57. cold fronts are shown by?
    a line with triangular points on one side
  58. warm fronts shown by
    a line with semicircles extending from one side
  59. focus of an earthquake? epicenter?
    • spot in crust where earthquake starts
    • geographical location of earthquake
  60. Physical prop. of min.
    hardness, luster, cleavage, streak, crystal form, taste, color
  61. Why seasons on earth?
    tilt of earth and rotation of earth around the sun
  62. How moon formed?
    collided with earth and splashing material into space that did not escape earth's gravitational pull and it coalesced into a moon
  63. terrestrial planets are like what?
    rocky/earth-like
  64. Earths sister planet
    Mercury
  65. What are saturn's rings composed of?
    ice, dust, and rock
  66. Largest planet in our solar system?
    Jupiter
  67. Largest volcano in our solar system?
    olympus mons
  68. Where is asteroid belt located?
    Between Mars and Jupiter
  69. What is a light year?
    distance that light travels during time Earth revolves around the sun once
  70. Scale used to describe tornadoes?
    Fujita
  71. Scale to describe hurricanes?
    Saffir Simpson
  72. What is an astronomical unit?
    distance from earth to the sun
  73. Three types of heat transfer?
    Conduction, convection, radiation
  74. Four states of matter?
    solid, liquid, gas, plasma
  75. Order of the planets?
    M V E M J S U N
  76. Hoe do Igneous rocks become sedimentary rocks?
    sediments are dropped from wind and make a layer that is buried under other sediments. Sediments become cemented together
  77. Sedimentary rock changes to meatmorphic rock
    gets buried deep in earth and is baked by heat and pressure, becomes a new rock
  78. Metamorphic to sedimentary rocks
    weathered and eroded, and minerals carried by wind or water deposited into sediment beds cemented together to become sedimentary rock
  79. If metamorphic rock is melted and becomes magma?
    the magma cools and hardens into igneous rock
  80. Rock cycle summary
    begins as igneous, erode into sedimentary, change into metamorphic, melt back to magma and repeat process again
  81. Change of state from a solid to a liquid is called?
    Melting
  82. Gas to a solid
    deposition

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