Comm 1

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  1. Connotative Language
    use of figurative language, hidden meanings, sarcasm, nicknames, used in relationships
  2. denotative language
    direct meaning, used in formal settings, literal, professional
  3. Things to consider while speaking
    • know your audience
    • confidence¬†
    • enthusiasm
    • eye contact
  4. Most important thing about giving a speech
    Gain and Maintain
  5. 4 Different types of speeches
    • Impromptu
    • Extemporaneous
    • Manuscript
    • Memorized
  6. Extemporaneous speech?
    • natural style
    • telling a story
    • using an outline
    • knowing the speech well
    • hand gestures
    • eye contact
  7. Non-verbal communication:
    • hand gestures
    • posture
    • eye contact
    • appearance
  8. Examples of Gain and Maintain
    • Rhetorical question
    • Narrative
    • Quote
    • Visual Aids
  9. Informative Speech
    • purpose is to enlighten audience
    • unbiased¬†
    • just give information
  10. 3 types of Informative speeches
    • Descriptive
    • Demonstrative
    • Definition
  11. Persuasive Speech
    Purpose: change audience's opinion about something
  12. 3 types of Persuasive Speeches
    • Actuate: get audience to take action
    • Convince: change audience's opinion
    • Stimulate: Motivate, get audience pumped up
  13. 4 stages of small group development
    • Forming: introductory phase, superficial conversation, brainstorming, first impressions
    • Storming: different conflicting ideas, group members can't agree
    • Norming: group members get past disagreement, get into a rythm
    • Performing: giving the speech
  14. 6 steps to solving problems within group
    • 1. identify the problem
    • 2. Conduct research/analysis
    • 3. establish guidelines and criteria
    • 4. generate solutions
    • 5. Select best solution
    • 6. Evaluate solution
  15. task roles
    • in a group task roles are hands on roles that directly relate to group's accomplishment of its objectives
    • e.g. "recording secretary" takes note
  16. forums
    an assembly for discussion of issues of public interest
  17. panel discussion
    • a group of people discusses a topic in the presence of an audience
    • moderator is needed to introduce panel members, ask questions, and summarize discussion and directs questions from the audience
  18. symposium
    formal meeting where various speakers deliver short speeches on different aspects of the same topic
  19. Autocratic leader
    makes decisions and announces them to the group
  20. Democratic leadership
    people govern themselves, everyone's involved
  21. Delegative Leadership
    asks the group to make decisions
  22. Participative leadership
    Leader makes decisions with the group
  23. Laissez-Faire leadership
    Leaderless group, no structure, everyone has to be motivated to do their part without anyone telling them what to do
  24. Collectivistic leadership
    group conformity, other person is right, focus on serving the group
  25. Keynote Speaker
    Lengthy speech, effective, opens for someone important
  26. Commencement speaker
    speaks during graduation, inspires, relates to audience
  27. Concrete Language
    to the point, denotative
  28. Aslo's Hierarchy of needs
    • From bottom to top:
    • 1st need- physiological: water, food, sex
    • 2nd need- safety: shelter, comfort, home
    • 3rd need- Love, belonging
    • 4th need- esteem- self esteem based on praise or negative feedback
    • 5th need- Self-actualization- humans are constantly changing and growing we will never fully become the person we want to be
  29. Emotions in a speech
    • It is ok to cry a little
    • don't be overly emotional
    • key is to blend emotion and logic
  30. Fallacies in Persuasive Speeches
    • Slippery slope- if you don't do this something bad will happen to you
    • Band wagon- everyone's doing it
    • Kitchen sinking- bring irrelevant information into the argument to try to win argument
    • Hasty generalization- an isolated instance is used to make an unwarranted general conclusion
  31. claims of fact
    focus on whether or not something is true or whether or not something will happen
  32. claims of value
    addresses issues of judgement, try to show something is right or wrong, good or bad
  33. claims of policy
    recommend that specific course of action be taken
  34. logical fallacy
    erroneous statement or invalid/ deceptive line of reasoning
  35. Red Herring Fallacy
    relies on irrelevant premises for its conclusion
  36. Begging the question
    An argument stated in such a way that it cannot help but be true, although no evidence has been presented
  37. Either-or fallacy
    gives only two alternatives although there might be many alternatives
  38. Ad hominem argument
    targets the person instead of the issue at hand in attempt to get the audience to dislike that person
  39. Non sequitur (does not follow)
    argument in which the conclusion is not connected to the reasoning
  40. Appeal to tradition
    argument suggesting audience members should agree with a claim because it has always been done that way
  41. Motivated Sequence Pattern of Arrangement by Alan Monroe
    • Step 1: Attention: addresses listeners concerns
    • Step 2: Need: isolates the issue, tells audience that they have a need that must be satisfied
    • Step 3: Satisfaction: identifies the solution
    • Step 4: Visualization: vision of anticipated outcomes associated with the solution
    • Step 5: Action: Finally the speaker asks audience members to act according to their acceptance of the message
  42. Pitch
    important because it powerfully affects meaning associated with the words
  43. Intonation
    rising and falling of vocal pitch across phrases and sentences
  44. Pronunciation
    correct formation of word sounds
  45. Articulation
    clarity or forcefulness with which the sounds are made
  46. ethos
    • means character
    • audiences listen to and trust speakers if they demonstrate good character
  47. speaker credibility
    • people place their greatest trust in speakers who:
    • 1. have a solid grasp of subject
    • 2. display sound reasoning skills
    • 3. are honest and unmanipulative
    • 4. genuinely interested in welfare of their listeners
  48. Pathos
    passion, enthusiasm
  49. Logos
    target audience using logical, valid research, and good evidence
  50. Aristotle's Rhetoric
    • available means of persuasion
    • 1. persuasion is emotional
    • 2. argumentation is logical-evidence/reasoning
    • 3. Persuasion is everywhere
  51. Outline
    framework of speech, thesis, forecast, preview points, recap
  52. Ways to organize an outline
    • chronological sequence
    • cause and effect
    • problem/solution
    • topical
    • spatial-based on location
  53. Rebuttal
    opposing perspective
  54. Pseudo-listening
    pretend listening
  55. Ambushing
    looking for information to use against someone
  56. monopolizing
    people that make the conversation all about them
  57. Piecemeal listening is also known as:
    selective listening
  58. buzz group
    small, intense discussion group usually involving 2 or 3 people responding to a specific question in search of a specific answer/information
Card Set:
Comm 1
2014-05-21 05:16:37

Final Exam
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