Physio Ch 26 Reproductive and Development

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  1. define sexual dimorphism
    males and female are physically distinct.
  2. name the male and female gonads
    testes and ovaries, they produce gametes and sex hormones
  3. define internal and external genitalia.
    internal genitalia refers to two pairs of ducts. wolffian ducts derived from the embryonic kidney and Mullerian ducts. During development, one pair will degenerate depending on the sex.

    external genitalia consist of gentile tubercle, urethral groove, and labioscotal swellings. which turn into male and female reproductive structures
  4. Give the genetics of male, female, and aberrations from nondisjunction regarding sex chromosomes.
  5. Which determines sex, sperm or egg?
    sperm-father determines the sex
  6. briefly explain the role of Y or SRY protein in sex differentiation.
    In the presence of Y or SRY proteins, the gonads will develop into testes. In the absence, they will turn into ovaries.
  7. define homologous structures, give examples.
    Homologous structures are parts of the body that are similar in structure to other species' comparative parts,
  8. describe  and compare oogenesis and spermatogenesis.
    • In both sexes , germ cells in the embryonic gonads-->series of mitotic divisions to increase #s. then they are ready for meiosis. 1st the cell replicates (46-->92 chromosomes). now called primary spermatocyte or primary oocyte, contains twice the DNA. 2 Instead of mitosis, each duplicate into sister chromatids.
    •  In the first meiotic division, one primary gamete divide into to secondary gametes (secondary spermatocyte of secondary oocyte). 3 each gamete goer one copy of each duplicate autosome plus one sex chromosome. in the secondary meiotic division , the sister chromatids separate. 4, In males the cell split during the second meiotic division, resulting in two haploid sperm from each secondary.
    •  In females,  the secod meiotic division create one e.g. and one small cell body called a polar body that .
  9. Name pituitary, ovarian, and testicular hormones1
    pituitary-gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH)

    ovaries-estrogen and progesterone 

  10. Define secondary sex characteristics.
    traits that distinguish males from females

    the male shape is more triangular with narrow hips and waist

    the female is more pair shaped
  11. List several methods of contraception.
    • abstinence 
    •   tubal ligation
    •   vasectomy
    • Barrier methods
    •   spermicides 
    •   diaphragm
    •   contraceptive sponge 
    •   condom
    •   hormone injection 
    •   sterilization
  12. Explain the function of the acrosome.
    it is an enzyme released by the sperm head to help break through the zone pellucida. the enzymes dissolve cell junctions to penetrate the egg
  13. Describe where fertilization usually occurs.
    At the distal part of the fallopian tube
  14. Define ectopic pregnancy.
  15. Give the function of the placenta. note hormones too.
  16. define blastocyte
  17. Describe the location of amnion and chorion.
  18. Describe what HCG does and when produced.
  19. Describe the pituitary and ovarian hormones of the menstrual cycle.
  20. describe the changes in the endometrium and in the ovary druring the menstrual cycle.
  21. define parturition
  22. Give the function of oxytocin in labor
  23. Give the function of oxytocin in labor.
  24. Give the function oxytocin and prolactin in lactation
  25. define menopause.
Card Set:
Physio Ch 26 Reproductive and Development
2014-05-18 21:56:52
Human Physiology Silverthorn Dorner
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