Criticism Aesthetics and Principles

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Criticism Aesthetics and Principles
2014-05-17 15:45:13
Art 12

FTCE Art K-12
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  1. What are the three basic types of geometric projection?
    • Cabinet Projection
    • Isometric projection
    • Scientific projection
  2. Define the first basic geometric projectioncabinet.
    Cabinet projection – gives a fairly good approximation of how an object will appear when finished and provides measurements in scale. It isn't a particularly popular method, however, since it usually requires two translations – top and side and to have and ratio translations in terms of size.
  3. Define the second basic geometric projection isometric.
    Isometric Projection – preferred when exact conceptions of scale and shape are required; the preferred method for tool manufacturing and heavy industry; all measurements are at the same scale and the object is rendered from a general perspective of being looked down upon
  4. Define the third basic geometric projection scientific.
    Scientific Projection – also known by the more technical meaning, "central projection"; the center of the technique is anyone I point of focus; the object is rendered in multiple positions – sometimes exemplified through a drop-down or "swing away" drawing; a common technique for many Renaissance painters such as Masaccio.
  5. It has been said that no paintings have lasted in better physical condition than those of the early Flemish school. Discuss why and explain the limitations inherent with their techniques.
    • Despite the innovations attributed to the Van Eyck brothers, it is thought that the development of oil painting occurred somewhat slowly by a series of degrees. Initially, oil was used as a final glaze to paintings executed in tempera until it finally supplanted tempera as the primary means for performing work. Thus, rather than being entirely suspended within the oil glaze, the pigment of earlier works mostly rested under its considerable protection.
    • Flemish methods or particularly well-suited to portraits and interior subjects performed on a small scale although painting on a larger scale required to substantially different treatment. This is largely due to the need to render variety of textures, to model in light and shade and to convey space and distance.
    • The need to exploit the transparent and opaque qualities of oil paint in the techniques of successive glazing necessitated more sophisticated methods that were be on the capabilities of the early Flemish technique.
  6. Explain how color can be used to convey either harmony or discord.
    A viewer's reaction to color is purely sensuous – unlike other elements within the frame, no analytical processing is necessary for its perception. An analogy with music provides a good illustration. A musical composer assembles a succession of notes or chords into a meaningful thread of melody which he retains throughout the composition. Likewise, a painter relates his palette of color to an overall visual melody that can appear and reappear multiple times. The manner in which this is done has an effect on the pleasure the viewer derives from it. Individual colors have an inherent ability to evoke emotions and/or provide certain cues. Red tends to be an exhilarating or warm color that can be made to evoke a more somber or sullen emotion by the darkening of its tone. Blue normally tends towards coolness and has receptive characteristics but it can be used for warmth and dominance. Yellow is generally sunny and light but it can be mixed down to convey a more sickly emotion.
  7. Define portrait is used to differentiate various forms of two-dimensional visual art.
    Portrait – a work that represents and likeness of a specific individual, group or animal; artists are frequently concerned with including some conveyance of emotion or painting the center in a manner that reveals some aspect of his or her personality; frequently performed in both two and three dimensions
  8. Define portraiture is used to differentiate various forms of two-dimensional visual art.
    Portraiture – refers to the field of portrait making; also used as a general term referring to portraits
  9. Define self-portrait as used to differentiate various forms of two-dimensional visual art.
    Self-Portrait – occurs when an artist represents them self or herself as the principal subject within the a work; often accomplished using the reflection in a mirror or, in the modern era, a photograph
  10. Define landscape as used to differentiate various forms of two-dimensional visual art.
    Landscape – a work of art as a painting or photograph that depicts natural scenery – valleys, mountains, trees, rivers, forests, etc.
  11. Define still life as used to differentiate various forms of two-dimensional visual art.
    Still life – created by painting and adamant, common subjects such as food, flowers, vessels, books and clothing
  12. Explain the process of composition and painting.
    Composition is the summation of all means by which a painter arrives at unifying his or her intended overall effect. A general design or "marking out" is the usual first step. This can be in the form of a linear framework or geometric structures such as the arrangements of figures with and a pyramid or a triangle shape.

    Raphael's "Madonna and St. John" is an excellent illustration of triangle affect on overall form.
  13. Explain the relationship between form and content.
    • George Hagel argued in his "lecture on aesthetics" that other sensuous appreciations of art focus on its appearance or "form". This holds the attention of the viewer and lands art it's individuality. The process of sensory appreciation is a relatively concrete one with little accompanying discursive thought.
    • The initial crush us of understanding their work is a means of seeking conceptual content within it where content is considered as an expression of an idea.
    • + The two can be seen as intertwined or codependent. Form becomes the vehicle by which content is presented. it can be argued that form without content ceases to be art and become something else perhaps a simple work of sensory enjoyment. Likewise, content with outperform is knowledge without an expressive conduit. Once again, this ceases to be art and becomes something else – perhaps an educational tool.
  14. Explain the difference between abstract expressions of movement and kinetic art.
    Kinetic art transcends the implications of time-motion through abstract of the techniques by including real motion as a tangible entry in a work. Technical advances in the modern era have been enabling factors.
  15. What are the six basic areas of investigation for kinetic artists.
    • Optical phenomena
    • transformations
    • movable works
    • machines
    • light-play
    • movement itself
  16. Describe the basic area of investigation for the kinetic artist known as optical phenomena.
    Optical phenomena – occurs when a parent or actual movement of an object or an observer produces a sensation of change and motion
  17. Describe the basic area of investigation for the kinetic artist known as transformations.
    Transformations – occur when rapid movement seems to dematerialized is an object or when movement invokes a recognizable change in the objects appearance
  18. Describe the basic area of investigation for the kinetic artist known as movable works.
    Movable works – encourages the rearrangement or alteration of the painting or sculpture by the observer essentially becomes interactive with the work
  19. Describe the basic area of investigation for the kinetic artist known as machines.
    Machines – motorized apparatus equipment with tears, cranks, camshafts and levers that left, turn, push and pull
  20. Describe the basic area of investigation for the kinetic artist known as light-play.
    Light-play – dependent upon movement of either the light source or the viewer
  21. Describe the basic area of investigation for the kinetic artist known as movement itself.
    Movement itself – with self-affecting mechanics and economy of means
  22. Explain the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic values of art
    • The extrinsic view holds that art is an instrument for the recognition of a moral or purpose while the intrinsic view is that art has value unto itself.
    • Extrinsically, art is seen as an educational tool if for no other purpose than to educate the emotions of the one experiencing it
  23. What are the characteristics of aesthetic sensitivity essential for the purpose of art appreciation?
    • Curiosity
    • open-mindedness
    • and ability to concentrate or focus attention
  24. Define the characteristics of aesthetic sensitivity essential for the purpose of art appreciation known as curiosity.
    Trieste – a childlike sense of wonder that can open a broader avenue of discovery; it should not be inhibited by preconceived notions, boundaries or preset limits but rather should include a certain enthusiasm for the act of observing.
  25. Define the characteristics of aesthetic sensitivity essential for the purpose of art appreciation known as open-mindedness.
    open-mindedness – requires an ability or willingness to assimilate the unfamiliar. Such a disposition shouldn't come at the expense of personal taste, but rather should occur for the purpose of being receptive to the artistic intent.
  26. Define the characteristics of aesthetic sensitivity essential for the purpose of art appreciation known as the ability to concentrate or focus attention.
    The ability to concentrate or focus attention – is important to eliminate spurious influences that can affect the process of aesthetic conclusion. Regardless, the work is best appreciated when the viewer can isolate, at least some measure, his attention upon the work.
  27. Explain how one might differentiate art from a cartoon.
    The question has caused no shortage of controversy throughout the history of art criticism. Included that ends as much to do with complexity. A good illustration is the difference between the cartoonist Mike render motion or movement as opposed to the artist the cartoonist strictly employs lines including motion, such as to rear of a figure. In contrast, an artist might use more sophisticated techniques such as soon after image, a principal pose of the artist of a figure which can be quite unnatural figure were still, etc.
  28. Explain how one's capacity for aesthetic awareness can affect their appreciation of visual art.
    The act appreciating visual art is, and its simplest form, one of simply deriving satisfaction or pleasure from observing the beauty given to it by its creator. Researchers has shown that the capacity for appreciating (or, alternatively, creating) aesthetically pleasing art appears to be present within every individual although it does seem to vary in terms of degree.The act appreciating visual art is, in its simplest form, one of simply deriving satisfaction or pleasure from observing the beauty given to it by its creator. Researchers have shown that a capacity for appreciating (or, alternatively, creating) aesthetically pleasing art appears to be present within every individual although it does not
  29. Explain how the objectives of "nude art" in ethnography differ.
    • The human form, mostly the female human form, has been one of the most cherished aspects of natural beauty throughout history.
    • The pornographer creates a rendition or view intended to maximize sexual arousal on the part of the viewer.
    • Nude art particularly naturalistic nude art often attempts to convey the delicate softness of the feminine form. Erotic arousal is not the objective. It is rather an artistic portrayal – either naturalistic or stylistic abstract.
  30. Explain the distinction between appreciating art and natural beauty.
    • While both can be appreciated for their sensory appeal, unlike natural beauty, art cannot be fully experienced until it is fully understood.
    • Art can also be thought of as having content that the artist wishes to be understood by his or her arty. Some also consider art is having symbolism and feelings, ideas, objects, or states of affair.
  31. What are the personal qualities that can affect aesthetic sensitivity?
    • Independence of judgment
    • tolerance of complexity
    • the sense of recreation
  32. Explain the personal qualities that can affect aesthetic sensitivity known as independence of judgment.
    Independence of judgment occurs when one maintains his or her own personal judgment despite the contrary opinion of fellows or when one resists appending his or her opinion to that of others.
  33. Explain the personal qualities that can affect aesthetic sensitivity known as tolerance of complexity.
    Tolerance of complexity requires a resignation that not every individual element or technique at its most elementary structure must be understood prior to engaging in an understanding or genuine appreciation of the work.
  34. Explain the personal qualities that can affect aesthetic sensitivity known as the sense of reaction.
    A sense of reaction or an ability to break from the normal rigor of adult life is necessary in order to engage one's appreciation faculties. This is simply the factor of engaging different parts of the brain for different purposes.
  35. Aldous Huxley, writing in "the art of seeing" characterized the act of seeing as consisting of three simultaneous activities which are _____  _____  _____.
    • Sensing
    • Selecting
    • Perceiving
  36. Explain the first Simultaneous act, characterized act of seeing, sensing, as identified by Aldous Huxley in his book "the Art of Seeing".
    Sensing occurs in the eyes and nervous system and it does not vary substantially among normal, healthy individuals.Sensing occurs in the eye and nervous system and that is
  37. Explain the second Simultaneous act, characterized act of seeing, selecting, as identified by Aldous Huxley in his book "the Art of Seeing".
    Selecting is the process of narrowing one's focus to a single area or part of the total visual Field.
  38. Explain the third Simultaneous act, characterized act of seeing, perceiving, as identified by Aldous Huxley in his book "the Art of Seeing".
    Perceiving is the mental activity that occurs between sensation and through that gives meaning and significance to sensation. Visual perception is sensing which occurs as a function of the structure of the.
  39. What are the four basic types of mental activity (thinking, feeling, sensation and intuition) developed by Herbert read in his theory of models of perception?
    • Realism
    • Super-realism
    • Expressionism
    • Constructivism
  40. Give an overview of Herbert Read's theory of models of perception that correspond to realism.
    Realism – occurs when the artist perceives his world and the objects it contains as objective facts and attempts to render what is seen as exactly as possible, although sometimes through his on stylistic lens; Michelangelo, Da Vinci, Raphael, and Botticelli should be considered realism artists
  41. Give an overview of Herbert Read's theory of models of perception that correspond to super-realism.
    Supra-realism – occurs when an object of visual origin and are rendered in an independent reality sometimes creating on real relationships or juxtapositions; Dolly, Chagall, René Magritte and Georgia O'Keeffe often employed the technique of super-realism.
  42. Give an overview of Herbert Read's theory of models of perception that correspond to Expressionism.
    Expressionism – involves the projection of one's own consciousness into the object of perception creating a personal and subjective rendition; Van Gogh, Matthias Grunewald and Seymour Lipton used the expressive technique.
  43. Give an overview of Herbert Read's theory of models of perception that correspond to constructivism.
    Constructivism – this method forsakes imitative elements in favor for attempting to evoke an aesthetic response on the part of the viewer by manipulating the formal relationships of space, mass, color and sound; Jackson Pollack, José de Riviera, Reinhardt and Albers are or were constructivist artist
  44. Explain the classically accepted explanation for differentiating craft from fine art and the ideology behind a more softened view on part of contemporary critics.
    • A craft, by definition, is a technique or skill considered part of the aesthetic aspects of creation often involving a constructive manual activity. The Cressman is rendering a finished product and is not engaged in an active process of aesthetic expression. Over the last century, an attempt at such a sharp distinction has been recognized as largely futile – "craft" as it were – essentially the construction of principal objects with artistic embellishments (jewelry, kitchenware, etc.) has been found to evoke comparable aesthetic response on part of the viewer.
    • Engine processes continue to see widespread use by modern craftsmen. Many have leverage them to produce works of impressive individuality. Today, the term "fine art" is still frequently reserved for classic modes of painting architecture and sculpture.
    • Ultimately, defining in differentiating art is one of common opinion and subjectivity.
  45. Explain some of the advantages of portraiture over photography.
    Photographer can manipulate light, suggests the tire or elicit facial expressions prior to snapping his camera but in the end, he must record what is present. In contrast, the portrait artists can select essential attributes or features for emphasis or systematic embellishment. He can synthesize transient expressions or contours into a cohesive picture and ultimately produce a rendition which is wholly unique in its visual beauty and composition.
  46. What is the figure/ground relationship of objects we perceive.
    • The figure/ground relationship refers to the relationship of an object to its foreground while perceptions tend to be intuitive, the artist can employ various techniques to achieve desired affect or alter the way the viewer perceives relationship. The areas that can be altered are:
    • Area
    • Degree of close
    • Proximity
    • Continuation
    • Symmetry
  47. What are the principles of organization that govern the "figure/ground" relationship of objects you perceive?
    • Area
    • Degree of close
    • Proximity
    • Continuation
    • Symmetry
  48. Describe the principals of organization that govern the figure/ground relationship of objects would receive known as area.
    Area – as a closed region becomes smaller, the more it is seen as a figure
  49. Describe the principals of organization that govern the figure/ground relationship of objects would receive known as the degree of close.
    Degree of close – close contour areas appear more as figures than open content areas
  50. Describe the principals of organization that govern the figure/ground relationship of objects would receive known as proximity.
    Proximity – objects and shapes which are close to one another tend to be grouped together
  51. Describe the principals of organization that govern the figure/ground relationship of objects would receive known as continuation.
    Continuation – the ground or figure drawing the most attention tends to be that with the fewest changes or interruptions in straight or gently curved lines
  52. Describe the principals of organization that govern the figure/ground relationship of objects would receive known as symmetry.
    Symmetry – symmetrical regions that are closed tend to be seen more as figures
  53. Describe some considerations and art museum might make in purchasing art.
    • Budget
    • quality
    • the degree of imagination and skill employed by the artist
    • aesthetic merit
    • need of the current collection
    • price
    • condition
    • certainty of authenticity
  54. List the types of ways, we generated in visual art making.
    • Oily rags
    • paints
    • baby, linseed and lubricating oils
    • ceramic glaze
    • photographic chemicals
    • acids and bases
    • sharp implements
    • empty commercial containers
  55. Describe how to dispose of oily rags.
    Oily rags – should be placed in appropriate containers such as oil rag can; the containers should have a lead
  56. Describe how to dispose of solvents.
    Solvents – considered hazardous waste; do not dump down the drain
  57. Describe how to dispose of paints.
    Paints – considered hazardous waste by the Environmental Protection Agency; do not dump down the tray; Playtex and water-based paints may be disposed of in regular trash
  58. Describe how to dispose of baby, linseed and lubricating oils.
    Baby, linseed and lubricating oils – baby oil can be washed down the drain or dispose of in regular trash; linseed oil should be combined with solvents or oil-based paints for disposal; lubricating oils are recyclable and should be disposed of as such
  59. Describe how to dispose of ceramics glaze.
    Ceramic glaze – glazes should be rinsed in special basins which catch the settlement prior to entering the drain
  60. Describe how to dispose of photographic chemicals.
    Photographic chemicals – standard developer and rinses can be washed down the drain; fixers containing high quantities of sewers should be disposed of as hazardous waste; are the chemicals should be considered hazardous waste and disposed of accordingly
  61. Describe how to dispose of acids and bases.
    Acids and bases – the general range for considering acids and bases are hazardous in between 2 and 12.5 on the pH scale
  62. Describe how to dispose of sharp implements.
    Sharp implements – should be placed in a puncture proof container such as a glass jar and place in regular trash
  63. Describe how to dispose of empty commercial containers.
    Empty commercial containers – should be rinsed repeatedly and placed in regular trash
  64. Describe the use of protective apparel while working in the studio.
    Protective apparel such as safety glasses or goggles, gloves, long sleeves, long pants and boots or shoes rather than sandals help prevent contact of chemicals with the skin. The garments should be dedicated for the use of studio or work area and washed frequently in a separate load from other laundry.
  65. Explain the function of the Art and Creative Material Institute (ACMI).
    The ACMI is a nonprofit association of art supply manufacturers concerned with the safe use of their product by the artistic community.
  66. Explain the typical nature and composition of bronze age art and provide the location where much of it is thought to have originated.
    • Seventh century BC Macedonia in northern Greece saw the advance of architectural and metallurgical techniques which ultimately gave rise to the art of the period. Painted pottery and feminine figures were both popular and remarkably stylized interesting terra-cotta examples include the Cycladic vase in the shape of a bear holding a bowl dated around 2500 BC, a Kamares style jug with a break for a spout at Phaistos from approximately 1800 BC and the three-headed pithos decorated with fish thought to have been created around the same time.
    • Other clay sculptures have been discovered on the island of Syros in the Aegean that have remained remarkably well preserved despite the poor quality of material used to create them. This work appears to depict a wide variety of objects, many of which have yet to be identified with any degree of certainty.
    • Metallurgical techniques have become advanced enough by the second construction of Troy around 2200 BC that jewelry, bowls and vases were made in vast quantities from it, as well as from more traditional mediums of clay which have begun to be spun on wheels for the first time during this period.
  67. The Mycenaean and people that existed along the southeastern shore of the Greek mainland from about 1600 to 1100 BC were prolific artists who cherished their work as treasures. The Treasury of Atreus, the long ago robbed of its contents, is just one of several tombs that have been discovered there. Describe artifacts which have been recovered from intact Mycenaean tombs.
    • The gold Rhyton in the shape of a lion's head is quite noble for its stylistic departure from other finds. It exhibits a bold style of smooth planes and sharp ridges that seem to indicate a near Eastern influence. The golden vaphio cups on display in the national Museum at Athens, however, a completely Mycenaen and is in every way, replete with renditions of the robed bulls struggling against the heel of highly stylized muscular herders.
    • Other works such as the fortress remnant The Lion Gate depicts two large, muscular lions flanking the column over a gateway is notable for its militaristic style and is the first known example of monumental stone sculpture in early Greek art.
    • The ivory carving Three Deities is an interesting piece art its GUI but perhaps the greatest intrigue arises from the subject matter itself to women are depicted kneeling and attendance of a young male child, evocative of an oft repeated three generation family group theme in Christian art.
  68. Provide a descriptive list of several well-known works of the Greek archaic period.
    • Herkles strangling the Nemean lion
    • Dionysis in a Boat
    • lapith and Centaur
    • Female Figure
    • Standing Youth
    • Calf Bearer
    • The Rampant Head
    • the limestone temple of Apollo at Corinth
  69. Define hue as associated with color.
    Hugh – any specific color
  70. Define shade as associated with color.
    Shade – a color made by adding black to a hue
  71. Define tone as associated with color.
    Tone – the color made by adding gray to a hue
  72. Define value as associated with color.
    Value – the degree of light or darkness
  73. Define achromatic as associated with color.
    Achromatic – black, white and gray's; artwork executed without color
  74. Define black as associated with color.
    Black – the complete absence of light
  75. Define chroma as associated with color.
    Chroma – the intensity, strength or purity of a color
  76. Define complementary colors as associated with color.
    Complementary colors – colors which appear opposite one another on the color wheel; example given blue and orange
  77. Define secondary colors as associated with color.
    Orange, Violet, green; each is midway between the primaries from which it can be mixed
  78. Define shade as associated with color.
    Shade – using a mixture of black mixed with a color to make it darker; the opposite of Shade's tent
  79. Define spectrum as associated with color.
    Spectrum – colors that are the result of a beam of white light that is broken by a form of prism into its hues
  80. Define tent as associated with color.
    The opposite of shade; combining white with a color to make it lighter
  81. Define value as associated with color.
    Value – shadows, darkness, contrasts and light
  82. Describe the hazards commonly associated with the use of oil and water based paints. Explain methods to mitigate the risk associated with their use.
    • Avoid using sodium fluoride, Mercury or phenol compounds as preservatives. Acrylics will sometimes cause nose, eyes or throat irritation. Open a window or use an exhaust fan and when this occurs. Always were goggles, gloves or protective aprons when handling ammonia.
    • Avoid direct skin contact with centers and other solvents. Always use a well ventilated area and where new print gloves when handling. Stop immediately and seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms when using paper producing chemicals: dizziness, headache, drowsiness, nausea, fatigue, loss of coordination, or respiratory irritation.
    • Epoxy paints have been linked to bone marrow damage – use them only with proper skin and respiratory protection.
    • Most pain can be removed with baby oil and soapy water – never used center to remove paint from skin.
  83. List painting and drawing perspectives and group them by level of hazard – slight, moderate, and high.
    • slight or no hazard chemicals include:
    • boric acid, borax, ethyl parabens, methyl parabens, propyl parabens, sodium benzoate, thymol and zinc napthenate.

    • Moderate risk chemicals include:
    • zinc chloride, sodium 2, four, five trichlorophrnate, sodium or so phenyl phenate, sodium fluoride, phenyl mercuric acetate, phenyl mercuric chloride, mercuric chloride, magnesium silicofluoride, formalin, bleach and beta naphthol.

    • High risk chemicals include:
    • chromated copper arsenate, pentachlorophenol and phenol, chromium and arsenic.
  84. List materials that should be avoided when children are participating in an art project and some common rules that can help prevent accidents.
    • Adult supervision is advised when children are working with art materials. All adult material should be avoided as these may contain toxic chemicals, including solvents, centers, shall ask, acids, alkalis, bleaches, rubber cement and permanent markers. Materials which must be sprayed such as paints, fix it is, adhesives and airbrush paint should be avoided as well as pottery glazes, copper enamels, stained glass and pastels.
    • Also any materials required solvents for cleanup such as oil paint or oil based paint marking inks should be substituted for water-based alternatives when available. It is often best to limit the amount or quantity of materials often two very young children to reduce the risk should in gestation occur. Children should also be taught to wash their hands thoroughly after working with the materials.
  85. List particularly dangerous pigments and the risks associated with their use.
    • Antimony black – may react with stomach acids to create highly toxic substance, hydrogen sulfide
    • chrome orange, yellow or green – extremely toxic, known carcinogens
    • cadmium red – probable carcinogen
    • red or white led – highly toxic, heavy metal
    • cobalt Violet – extremely toxic
    • antimony white – probable carcinogen
    • strontium  yellow – highly toxic, known carcinogen
    • Antwerp blue – produces highly toxic cyanide gas when heated or exposed to ultraviolet radiation or asset
  86. Explain what is meant by the Akhenaten style of Egyptian art from the new Kingdom and provide examples of its rendition.
    • Almost certainly noble for its exquisite realism, perhaps the most interesting aspect about the Akhenaton style is the shift from the rigidity of the past to the more relaxed expressiveness. This is particularly evident in the Daughters of Akhenaton mural from Tell el 'Amarna which depicts the playful gesture and informal polls with complete indifference towards the royal dignity so evident in virtually all work from previous errors.
    • The limestone bust, Queen Nefertiti, is considered a masterpiece for its exquisite realism and beauty while, paradoxically, the limestone relief of Akhenaton himself appears almost comically exaggerated and ungainly.
    • Workman Carrying a Beam from the tomb of Horemheb in Saqqara depicts a realistic, manual labor struggle that is truly remarkable for its frank realism and freedom of expression.
    • The influence of Akhenaton style persisted for some time following his death despite a gradual regression to the religious rigidity of earlier times.
  87. Greek civilizations slowly arose through a hard one confluence of military, social and political struggle for almost a millennia prior to its blossom around 800 BC. Explain this confluence and how it may have contributed to the eventual richness and variety of its artistic culture.
    • Around 2500 to 2000 BC various tribes began entering the Greek peninsula who contribute their own uniqueness to the indigenous culture that existed there. The Dorians and Ionians are two that deserve specific mention due to their proximity to the near East which added artistic influence from that severe.
    • Eventually, the emerging civilization spread throughout the Aegean islands and Asia minor, observing the minor cultures that exist in these areas.
    • Common languages and beliefs among the disparate groups hastened a cultural cohesion that advance much faster than its political counterpart, largely due to the difficulty in waging successful military campaigns within the broth geography of the region.
  88. The Nike of Samothrace and the Laocoon Group are two of the most famous Greek sculptures from the second century BC. Describe these works and the contrast they represent
    • Nike of Samothrace depicts the goddess Nike to merely upon her descent to the front of a ship. Still partly airborne with drapery flowing, her wings are spread majestically against the on rushing air.
    • In contrast the Laocoon Group of Agesander, Athenodorus and Polydorus of Rhodes was obviously sculpted to depict a strong scene of tragedy. The three are seen in the midst of a divine punishment, ensnared by a serpent with no apparent means of escape.
  89. Describe how to reduce the risk of electric shock while working with artistic electrical equipment.
    • Always inspect wiring and plugs prior to use. Installation should be pliable and free of cracks or other defects. If damage is evident, do not use the device.
    • Knowing how to operate all switches and circuit breaker panels which may be needed to shut off equipment in the event of electrocution or fire.
    • Avoid the use of extension cords and multi-plug adapters where possible
    • keep water and other liquids away from electrical cords and equipment do not use electrical equipment in or near sinks or washbasins
    • ensure that electrical equipment is properly grounded do not use plug adapters that defeat the grounding feature of a plug
  90. Explain the danger and precautions associated with the use of dried drawing media.
    • Dry dry media includes charcoal, pastels and oil pastels, pencils and crayons. Graphite dust from pencils is a potential hazard as is the dust from charcoal sticks. Use these implements with a fan or similar ventilation and choose products which produce the least amount of dust possible. Wet wipe or mom of excessive dust at the end of each day or drawing session. For those who are particular susceptible to the effects of dust, the electric room filter may be available.
    • Kranz and oil pastels produce no dust but are generally safe although some oil pastels do contain toxic chemicals which are hazardous if ingested it is always best to research materials prior to purchasing them to determine it if less toxic alternatives exist.
    • Spray fixative contain solvents which are hazardous, particularly when vaporized. Use these outdoors, in a spray booth or with an approved respirator device.
  91. The 1879 discovery of a bison painting on the roof of a Friend and Altamira Spain marked the beginning of a new awareness regarding the art of Ice Age Europe. Describe the discovery that provided an overview of other art thought to have been created during this period.
    • Highly regarded for its color and expression, the Altamira bison is considered remarkable for its age and really has no known. The people that inhabited Europe at this time are thought to have been quite primitive culturally so most of the discovered art is limited to animals or highly stylized renditions of the human form.
    • The Lascaux cave, unseen and protected by a sealed entrance until 1940, is regarded as spectacular for both the variety and number of paintings contained within its vast chambers.
    • The limestone Gravettian sepulcher known as the Venus of Willendof measures only about 4 inches in height but is noteworthy for its depiction of fertility and prosperity – essentially a new well fed want with large, full breasts.
    • The ceremonial spear thrower from Barniquel which appears to have been carved from the and or of a reindeer is interesting as an early example of art lending additional form or functionality to a particular object.
    • Though it is believed that the creator of these works were tribal, nomadic hunters, little else is known about them.
  92. Describe distinguishing characteristics of Sumerian art and lists several notable examples of.
    • Softly swelling cheeks and large, oversized eyes are trademark features of many recovered works. The sculpted female-headed from Uruk, believed to have been carved around 3002 3500 BC, is remarkable for its expressive aspect that appears to attempt to convey the presence of deity behind its features.
    • Rounded, marble statue from the Abu Temple in Tell Asmar with their raised, folded hands oversized eyes also convey a sense of placidity and dignity common to the form.
    • While the latter examples are subtractive in nature, the Sumerians are known for additive work as well. Wood, lapis lazuli and gold-leaf were commonly used, such as the Billy Goat and the Tree from Ur, dated about 2600 BC.
    • The Royal portrait head of and I cannot ruler in bronze from  Ninevah is considered by many to be one of the most important artifacts from its error despite the vandalistic theft of its jeweled, inlaid eyes at some point in its history.
  93. Explain what is meant by open addition and secondary market when discussing prints.
    Open edition prints are usually printed on less expensive, lighter weight paper stock. Also, there are usually smaller in size than limited editions open additions are not signed numbered or inspected personally by the artist.

    The secondary market is means of obtaining prints or canvases after the edition is sold out from the publisher value and availability are based upon supply and demand and prices can vary substantially from given geographic locations or by individual retailers prevailing styles can also affect the secondary market.
  94. Define the term artist proof.
    An artist proof is a signed and numbered print bearing the pencil written initials A/P. Their identical to signed and numbered works with exceptions that there are far fewer fewer A/P's available.
  95. Defined the term signed only.
    Signed only refers to an open edition print which can be signed by the artist but has not been numbered.
  96. Define the term signed and numbered.
    Signed and numbered is often abbreviated S/N and refers to a print which has been both signed and numbered by the artist.
  97. Define the term limited edition.
    A limited-edition is a reproduction of an original painting that has been signed and numbered by the artist. True limited edition prints are considered collectible pieces of art and usually reproduced on high quality acid-free paper. Limited-edition prints are sometimes referred to as lithographs.