Processes and Materials of Art

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Processes and Materials of Art
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2014-05-18 20:10:09
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Art 12
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FTCE Art K-12
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  1. Define silver point as an art form and discuss its use and origin.
    • Prior to the advent of mechanical pencils, an instrument resembling a pencil was employed with a silver stylus for drawing with special papers. So point remains a viable modern art form, although very minor and use. To create a several point apparatus, the modern day artists will either split in ordinary pencil in two and replace the lead with silver point, or use a pencil holder. The tip should be kept sharp by rounding it off with sandpaper so that it will be less likely to create a tear or hole in the support.
    • So point has the tendency to tarnish over time which usually alters the effect to advantage by providing greater definition of lines. Historically, Leonardo Da Vinci produced so point work such as Virgin of the Rocks.
  2. laser holography.
    Laser holography – a highly technical method of using laser beams to create three-dimensional illusion; often employed on a very large scale
  3. Describe the common light sculpture known as strobe lights.
    It became strobe lights – designed to give bright, pulsing flashes of light
  4. Describe the common light sculpture known as neon tubes.
    Neon tubes – a glass tube filled with inert gas such as neon which is electrically charged produce a glowing effect
  5. Describe the common light sculpture known as florescent tubes.
    Florescent tubes – and argon filled gas tube with the inner coating of florescent powder which glows when electrically charged
  6. Describe the common light sculpture known as incandescent light bulbs.
    Incandescent light bulbs – a vacuum drawn glass consisting of a tungsten filament which glows when electrically charged
  7. What three are the main techniques for working foamed plastics?
    • Joining and gluing
    • coloring
    • heating tools
  8. When working foamed plastic describe the considerations for joining and gluing.
    Joining and glowing – PVA, which is a non-solvent glue, is often used for polystyrene while rubber contact types prove useful for poly urethane. Drawing a hotwire between services which are passed together can be used to join polystyrene as well.
  9. When working foamed plastic describe the considerations for coloring.
    Coloring – caution should be exercised when painting polystyrene as some paints contain solvents. Oils and polyester resins (or anything containing acetone were turpentine) should be avoided although one solution is to coat the surface with plaster of Paris prior to applying the finish. Safe paints include vinyl and acrylics. Polyurethane is in solvable and can be finished successfully using a large variety of paints.
  10. When working foamed plastic describe the considerations for heated tools.
    Heated tools – ideal for polystyrene but should be avoided with polyurethane. Nickel chrome hotwire works well for cutting large or small shapes while smaller services can be successfully worked with a hand cutter. Soldering irons or kitchen knives are great tools and can be found in a large variety of shapes and sizes. Heated needles and find metal tools embedded in Cork work well for detailing.
  11. Describe charcoal as an artistic medium and provide a brief illustration of its history and use.
    • Early artistic charcoal production was achieved by charring bundled twigs in airtight clay pots. Modern charcoal is killing produced from fine and will twigs.
    • Charcoal is generally regarded as the oldest dry medium and has changed very little since prehistoric time and when it was first used in cave drawings. It was widely used on frescoes during the Renaissance and continues to this day as a popular means of preparatory work for oil painting and canvas outline. It also continues to be used as a primary medium for some artists.
  12. Describe dip pens.
    Depends – cheap and readily available, these can be fitted to a variety of nib gauges, from fine to blunt points including script, italic, five line and copperplate
  13. Describe fountain pens.
    Fountain pens – marked by the fact that ink is drawn up through the neb via suction
  14. Describe reservoir pens.
    Reservoir pens – provide smooth flowing ink from a reservoir into which ink is poured, typically found with a variety of nips
  15. Describe Stylo tip reservoir pins.
    Stylo tip reservoir pans – preferably commercial illustrators, marked by a narrow metal tubular point which provides a good drawing performance regardless of how the pen is used
  16. Describe brushes.
    Brushes – for ink work, typically of the Siebel variety, these require careful clean after use
  17. Explain the basic principle of lithography and provide an overview of how it is performed.
    • Lithography works off the basis that grease and water don't mix. Flat or planographic images are produced on plates through a process of drawing, chemical etching and washing.
    • Historically, limestone was preferred as the surface due to its combination of rigidity and porosity. Modern commercial lithography is performed using flexible plates of aluminum, zinc or, in the case of offset printing, the use of a rubber roller as an additional intermediate step.
    • The basic process involves light etching of the surface such that only the design itself will hold the printing ink.
    • Lists of chalks, crayons, Greece and that though pins are employed to create the initial design.
    • Color lithography simply involves using the same etching original surface with different inks over the previous image.
  18. Describe the history and basic principles of screenprinting.
    • Stenciling comprise the majority of hurling crude screenprinting work. The GN Islanders poured vegetable dyes on to bark and closed through holes in banana leaves while later, in the Middle Ages, wood block stencils were used to decorate recreational items such as playing cards. They were also used as embellishments to religious pictures and manuscripts.
    • The first silkscreen process was developed in the early 20th century. This was shortly followed by a color version. A typical screenprinting apparatus consists of a stencil fitted under the fabric mash which has been stretched on a frame. Initially, silk was preferred screen material but it has recently been supplemented by synthetics such as nylon. To accomplish a print, paper is placed on the underside of the screen and stencils. Ink is then poured on top of the mesh and forced through onto the paper by dragging a rubber squeegee across to. Resulting image is a product of what ever is not blocked by the stencil.
  19. List the four primary phases of stone carving.
    • Boasting
    • shaping
    • carving
    • finishing
  20. Define boasting as related to stone carving and include suitable tools.
    Boasting – the first stage where the work is roughed out; hammer pitcher and point
  21. Define shaping as related to stone carving and include suitable tools.
    Shaping – the secondary phase that occurs after major areas have been previously defined; claws, chisels, mallets, rasps, files and rifflers
  22. Define carving as related to stone carving and include suitable tools.
    Carving – the most artistic stage where the actual work is ultimately created; finer tools such as smaller chisels, gouges, hammers, saws and pneumatic tools are employed
  23. Define finishing as related to stone carving and include suitable tools.
    Finishing – the final phase where texture is defined; grinders and electric sanders are often employed
  24. Describe the sketch box easel
    Sketch box easel – the very compact, folding lightweight alternative suitable for a traveling artist or for an artist to does not have a permanent place in which to set up for work
  25. Describe traditional artist's donkey.
    Traditional artist's donkey – a large easel with a bench that some artists find useful for detailed work required on extended times in front of the canvas
  26. Describe the table easel.
    Table easel – can be used on a high chair or low table; compact and easily stored
  27. Describe the collapsible easel.
    Collapsible easel – the preferred choice of most outdoor artists; typically has legs with adjustable height
  28. Describe the radial easel.
    Radial easel – a large, foldable easel which adjusts to allow work at various angles
  29. Describe the studio easel.
    Studio easel – relatively nonportable but necessary for work on large canvases; as the name implies, most suitable for studio use
  30. Describe the cutting techniques typically employed to work acrylic plastic sheets for artistic effect.
    Cutting – table saws lubricated with cutting winds were so are the usual choice
  31. Describe the annealing techniques typically employed to work acrylic plastic sheets for artistic effect.
    Annealing – a tempering process intended to increase strength; performed by a slow reduction of heat
  32. Describe the key to forming techniques typically employed to work acrylic plastic sheets for artistic effect.
    Heat forming – heating acrylic sheets to approximate to enter 250°F will cause them to become soft and pliable for forming
  33. Describe the joining our growing techniques typically employed to work acrylic plastic sheets for artistic effect.
    Joining a growing – best performed with solvent-based cement
  34. Describe the wet sanding techniques typically employed to work acrylic plastic sheets for artistic effect.
    What sending – Garnet are aluminum oxide sandpaper generally works best
  35. Describe the laminating techniques typically employed to work acrylic plastic sheets for artistic effect.
    Laminating – easily accomplished using a good quality laminating cement
  36. Describe the engraving techniques typically employed to work acrylic plastic sheets for artistic effect.
    Engraving – Burke utters and flexible shaft tools make excellent engraving equipment
  37. Describe the polishing and cleaning techniques typically employed to work acrylic plastic sheets for artistic effect.
    Polishing and cleaning – mild soap and water are generally sufficient to clean acrylic sheets; non-scratch pause or buffing machines are useful for final polishing
  38. Explain the use and production of wax as a medium.
    Waxman added to oil furnace produces a matte surface. Really makes a matte finish smooth and shining which may or may not be desirable. A popular artistic wax is beeswax, used for centuries and preferred for its versatility, particularly when mixed with sick paint for them presto or into thin paint for glaze. And it's oil medium from its use as a drying element through the addition of lead monoxide powder. Beeswax will often discolor pigments mixed with it although most artists who use it are willing to work around the problem by compensating with different tones and shades to produce the desired results.
  39. Discuss how fluency relates to the construction of meaning through comprehension.
    The amount of practice that is required for fluency and automatically and reading by children varies some children can read a word once and can recall it again with more speed other youngsters may need exposures numbering 20 or more. One advantage, children need between four and 14 exposures to have automatically in the recognition of new words. Thus, it is vital that children who are learning reading read a large amount of text at their independent reading level and that the format of the text provide practice that is specific to the skill being learned. Fluency and automatically and reading words – along with phonetic awareness and phonics sounds – are necessary, but not sufficient, for constructing meaning from text. Children must understand what is being read
  40. Provide an overview of pan and ink application techniques include home and ensure considerations.
    The primary pinning technique is line in.due to the ability it produces an almost limitless number of textures. Perhaps the most difficult to master aspect of pen and ink work is learning to use the correct amount of pressure to produce the proper ink flow. Pen and ink artists will routinely sketched their work with pencil prior to beginning their drawing although some prefer a more free-form approach. Our movement is critical and often proper technique involves the use of the entire arm rather than just hand and wrist. This is particularly true for brushwork. Shadow and total variations are achieved through various methods such as stippling, hatching and crosshatching, toothbrush spluttering and scribbling, among others.
  41. Describe why it may be necessary or preferred to submerge the drawing for watercolors and provide an overview of the consideration for doing so.
    A work may need to be detached occasionally from the base such as cards or would if it has inadvertently become stuck to it. A work may need to be cleaned or stains may need to be removed. Proper handling is crucial when submerging a work, particularly one in which a water soluble paint or ink has been used. Take care not to touch any of the painted or into surfaces. Never folder been to work at any time prior to or during or after submersion.
  42. Describe fresco preparation/material considerations and explain the basic fresco technique.
    The first step in fresco process is to ensure that the wall is properly prepared to receive the work. There should be no evidence of moisture and the wall should be treated to avoid the potential seepage which might occur in the foreseeable future. Brick or tile walls work best but concrete should be avoided due to the inherent, destructive impurities. The process of creating an acceptable quality fresco plaster is an intricate one. First the artist should select only the highest quality, fired white quicklime and shore sand such as from the freshwater sandpit or clear streambed. The mixture should be stored in a frost protected pit, preferably lined with bricks. Over a two-year period, pure water is periodically flooded through the line and well mixed. The wall which is to receive the fresco must be washed and cleaned of any loose dust or brick. Plaster is applied in three successive thin layers consisting of various proportions of preprepared plaster and sand. Paint section is important – only certain pigments will react chemically as they should with line.
  43. Define perspective and explain its principles.
    • Perspective is a system of creating the illusion of three dimensions on a two-dimensional surface. There are two basic categories of perspective – Arial or linear. Error prospective refers to atmospheric effect on objects in space and can be seen as diminishing tones from objects which are receding from view. Put simply, linear perspective describes a process of seeing lines on objects from various angles coverage and diverge.
    • The position from which an object is seen and drawn is called the station point or point of sight. The horizontal is represented by the eye level or horizon line. Ground planes referred to the horizontal plane where the artist is standing. The center of vision is the point on the horizon immediately opposite the eye. Vanishing point occurs where parallel lines converge.
  44. Describe the various tips and techniques that may be useful for transporting sculptures.
    • Other than consideration for local ordinances and regulations which may be present, there are no set methodology for transporting sculptures that will prevent damage from occurring. Such work is often best left to a professional moving company.
    • The professional help is not practical, adequate packing and preparation are essential. It is often necessary to disassemble large sculptures and number the pieces. When doing so photographs and sketching a disassembly/reassembly plan can prove helpful.
    • Pieces should be protected by blankets and wood framing, including the use of struts and packing materials within the containers in which they are shipped.
    • For lifting, leather or canvas straps are often useful in conjunction with police, levers, trolleys or, in the case of very large pieces, forklifts and cranes.
  45. Describe kinetics as art and lists common forms used in past displays of it.
    • A form of art involving time or motion or a combination of the two; water pumps, air currents, electromechanical and magnetic devices have been used successfully as part of kinetic displays.
    • Notable displays by famous artists have included such disparate components as rotating glass discs and vibrating rods.
    • Hanging mobiles – paper, metal, mirror, plastic or fabric objects suspended from varying lengths of cotton, wire, straining or nylon cord which are usually suspended from the ceiling using a wooden or metal strip
    • Pendulum effects – a famous example of the ball bearing model where metal balls are suspended next to one another on thin wires so that one or more can be pulled away and dropped against the remaining bunch producing the kind of perpetual swing (Newton's cradle) other examples include electromagnets and wire arrangements.
  46. What are the four most common modeling materials?
    • Clay/terra-cotta
    • wax
    • plaster
    • glass fiber
  47. Describe clay/terra-cotta as a modeling material and the tools used to work it.
    Clay in terra-cotta are sensitive to fine detail and can be used in a variety of states from a very firm to soft to achieve the desired results. Kitchen items such as knives, wooden spoons, rolling pins and purpose made tools are commonly employed to work these materials. A water sealed baseboards of thick ply makes for an ideal workspace.
  48. What are some of the various types of metal employed in metal sculpting?
    • Iron
    • copper
    • brass
    • aluminum
    • steel
  49. In metal sculpting define iron.
    Iron – is not a favorable materials due to its propensity for rust although rough iron is commonly favored due to its favorable working characteristics
  50. In metal sculpting define copper.
    Copper – unaffected by water although prone to oxide to a greenish color and air, copper combines well with other materials and is highly malleable due to its inherent softness.
  51. In metal sculpting define brass.
    Brass – an alloy of copper and zinc; polishes to a favorable finish and is corrosion resistant.
  52. In metal sculpting define aluminum.
    Aluminum – easily welded although difficult to mold due to its inability to hold shape under heat.
  53. In metal sculpting define steel.
    Steel – available in a variety of forms, notable for its strength and ability to be cut and welded although it can be difficult to mold.
  54. Explain what is meant by encaustic painting.
    • Encaustic painting is the art or technique of painting with hot wax colors you that are fused into homogenous layers after application and fixed with heat to a support.
    • The technique was developed by the ancient Greeks and is primarily exemplified by the final burning stage which is integral to the technique being referred to as encaustic.
  55. What are the various types of pencils available?
    • Graphite
    • charcoal and carbon
    • colored
    • clutch
  56. Describe the graphite pencil.
    Graphite – available in a variety of art and soft qualities on 18 points skill which runs from the softness, and to be through the artist, 8H or alternatively depending upon manufacture, from a scale of 1 to 4 with one being the softest grade.
  57. Describe the charcoal and carbon pencil.
    Travel and carbon – notable for high degree of blackness produced in the lines, like graphite pencils, most available in a variety of degrees of density and grades.
  58. Describe the colored pencil.
    Colored – soft into their two parts which include solar, binder, no brick and and coloring; available in a wide variety of tenants, typically not erasable with few exceptions although sometimes removable using a blade.
  59. Describe the clutch pencil.
    Clutch – a modified apparatus similar to a mechanical pencil with refillable lead in a range of size and the.
  60. Describe the purpose of casting as art form and the materials commonly employed to perform it.
    • Cassidy is an ancient process and use continuously to the present day which was first developed in the bronze age to make temples and statuettes. The basic premise behind Cassie is to either copy and objects using the same material as the original or to create a reproduction of an object in a different material. The latter object to is often for the purpose of improving the object's durability or appearance.
    • A and created by materials such as clay, wax, plaster of Paris, rubber, concrete or plastics such as polyester resins. In its simplest form, the casting material is poured over the object in allowed to dry. Once dried, it is removed, usually into pieces, to create a mold. The mold is then filled with material chosen for the new object and allowed to cool, cure or dry. Finally, the casting is removed.
    • The process of casting metal from a wax positive, is also known as cire perdue, is in intricate and potentially dangerous one generally only performance by a competent founder.
  61. Describe the theory behind color schemes.
    The color spectrum contains a virtually limitless number of individual colors. The human eye is capable of perceiving millions of individual shades and hues but until color theory was developed, no useful means existed to generate them in any systematic way. Primary color schemes were developed on the theory that any color from visible light spectrum can be produced by combining or subtracting just a few colors. These schemes evolved from one of the first, develop by Sir Isaac Newton, which is, known as Roy G Biv. The Roy G Biv colors include red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.
  62. What is meant by the terms additive and subtractive as related to the theme behind the primary color schemes.
    Additive primaries – most commonly read, green and blue, referred to as additive because when all three are combined, white light is created. When only tool of the three are combined, a third, or complementary, color is formed.

    Subtractive primaries – the colors formed when any two of the in additive primaries are combined; these are cyan, magenta, yellow and black created when white light is passed through all three subtractive primaries.
  63. Describe the use of pen and ink as an art form and give a brief, historical overview of their use.
    • Pen and ink is one of the least demanding art forms in terms of equipment requirements. Pen and ink artist simply need the addition of a variety of any kind of paper to produce their work. Historically, medieval monks employed pen and ink on prepared animal skins such as goats, sheep, calf, lamb and kid using the quill of goose feathers.
    • Pen use continued during the Renaissance and along with the mixed-media such as white highlighting, crayons and watercolors it first as an art form. It gained even more widespread use during the post-Renaissance era by such artists as Rubens and Van Dyck.
  64. Describe the basic techniques of traditional printmaking and provide a brief historical overview for their use.
    • The most basic form of printmaking, relief printing, has its origins in the far east beginning approximately 1400 years ago in China. The process consists of removing specific areas of material from a block of wood or similar source in order to leave a raised image of what is intended to be printed. The race surface is coated with ink or some form of paint and pressed into a suitable surface.
    • An alternative form of relief printing is an opposite methods whereby the paper is brought in contact with ink and the oppressed and the ink saturated areas of the printing block. The effect is successfully achieved by first removing the ink from the raised area of the block.
    • Lithographic planographic techniques involve printmaking from a flat surface such as metal sheets through the use of a combination of ink suspended in a grease mixture and water.
    • Screenprinting involves printing through a stencil.
  65. What are the basic techniques of traditional printmaking?
    • Relief printing and reverse relief printing
    • lithographic and planographic
    • screenprinting
  66. List the three basic types of paint.
    • Organic paint
    • Inorganic paint
    • Synthetic paint
  67. Describe organic paint.
    Organic paint – is carbon-based paint usually derived from animal sources. Two examples of these include ink sacs of the a cuttlefish which is used to make sepia and the urine of an Indian cow which is used to make Indian yellow.
  68. Describe inorganic paint.
    Inorganic paint – is derived from natural material pigments such as raw sienna or yellow ocher. Additional tones such as umber are manufactured through burning materials.
  69. Describe synthetic paint.
    Synthetic paint – is manufactured from man-made components. Examples include Cagney and, viridian green and cobalt blue.
  70. What are the kinds of stone used in stone carving?
    • Soapstone
    • Sandstone
    • Slate
    • Marble
    • Limestone
    • Granite
    • Alabaster
  71. Describe sandstone as it is used in stone carving.
    Sandstone – used for thousands of years; quality is dependent upon quartz content but generally quite porous and a poor performer for finishing.
  72. Describe soapstone as it is used in stone carving.
    Soapstone – the relatively soft and suitable for beginner but it's susceptible to moisture.
  73. Describe Slate as it is used in stone carving.
    Slate – readily available and polishes to a nice finish although potentially difficult to work due to a tendency to split.
  74. Describe marble as it is used in stone carving.
    Marble – available in a variety of colors, typically easy to carve and produces a nice finish.
  75. Describe limestone as it is used in stone carving.
    Limestone – available in a variety of densities and colors, Caen limestone from France is considered among the best for carving.
  76. Describe granite as it is used in stone carving.
    Granite – a very hard stone requiring special tools to work successfully, pashas to an extremely high finish but is not suitable for detailed work.
  77. Describe alabaster as it is used in stone carving.
    Alabaster – characteristically smooth and translucent, relatively soft and workable, best for smaller pieces which will be weather protected.
  78. Explain the time grounds as it relates to oil painting.
    • The layer between the sizing for surface preparation coat and the paint is referred to as the ground. As this layer is not intended add to or alter the artistic paint layer, it is typically white in color.
    • Commercially available choices include oil and acrylic-based grounds although some artist preferred to prepare their own using a turpentine or white spirit and oil mixture. gesso, a traditional ground with a clue component, is suitable for hard surfaces but cracks into fine lines once dry rendering it less than ideal for campus.
    • Emulsion grounds are oil-based mixtures that are both faster drying than purely oil solutions and are more flexible than gesso.
    • Acrylic grounds are a more recent product that does not require size and, although fairly recent and their introduction, show promise as a reliable alternative to traditional solutions.
  79. Describe the materials, techniques and equipment, and two papers sculpting.
    • Paper thickness is of primary consideration. Stiff drawing paper, card or cartridge paper is suitable for most work. Often artist will use wallpaper and metallic papers to reproduce favorable results. All of these are available in a variety of color and are suitable for and for spray painting.
    • The basic technique for working the paper involves cutting, carving, folding and bending. Freestanding work typically begins as a basic shape – pyramid, cube, Cohen, plead, etc. larger works can be supported by an inner wooden frame.
    • Cutting is critical to good paper sculpting. Sharpest plates and knives available will produce the best effects, particularly when used in conjunction with metal rulers as for cutting straight edges. Fold edges are usually bound with tape or fast drying adhesives.
  80. Provide a description of the variety of effects is killed artist can achieve using an airbrush.
    • Basic effects include straight lines and vignetting. Other less difficult effects include grade or blended tones which require working from lightest area to darkest. Fine line should be attempted with the assistance of a ruler while splitting effects are best achieved using a special airbrush.
    • Matthew is another useful technique that the airbrush artist can appoint to achieve a variety of effects. Liquid mask can be applied to the surface with a brush and simply peeled away following work.
    • More advanced effects include three-dimensional forms such as cubes, cylinders, pyramids and other shapes that employ convex or concave lines or services.
    • A standard airbrush works well for most purposes although for highly precise detailed work, the artist will often employ the more sophisticated lever action airbrush.
  81. What are some preferred characteristics of oil paint.
    • Performance
    • Paint film
    • Stability
    • Light fastness
    • Drain rate
    • Consistency
  82. Describe the preferred characteristics of oil paint known as permanence.
    Permanence – the paint should resist deterioration or decomposition under normal circumstances. If proper care is maintained, the paint should last for several centuries or more.
  83. Describe the preferred characteristics of oil paint known as paint film.
    Paint film – once dry, the paint should produce the kind of film which is flexible and continuous.
  84. Describe the preferred characteristics of oil paint known as stability.
    Stability – the paint should not affect adjacent paint, either on the same or different layers.
  85. Describe the preferred characteristics of oil paint known as light fastness.
    Light fastness – the paint should not change color or feet under normal light.
  86. Describe the preferred characteristics of oil paint known as drying rate.
    Drying rate – the paint should dry within 2 to 20 hours neither too fast nor too quickly.
  87. Describe the preferred characteristics of oil paint known as consistency.
    Consistency – the paint should be of a consistency so that it leaves a characteristic brush stroke.
  88. What are the basic elements of sculpture design?
    • Mass
    • Space
    • Plane
    • line
    • movement
    • scale
    • texture
    • color
  89. Describe the element of sculpture design known as mass.
    Mass – the most influential element and sculpture that can have a dramatic effect upon interpretation, like reflectivity and symmetry.
  90. Describe the element of sculpture design known as space.
    Space – space and a multi-pieced sculpture is an element that can be manipulated to affect interpretation by yielding clues with respect to the relationship between individual pieces.
  91. Describe the element of sculpture design known as plain.
    Plane – an element with two dimensions – length and width; plane thickness is typically minimized to provide the most dramatic differentiation between plane and volume.
  92. Describe the element of sculpture design known as line.
    Line – line lends an element of space to a sculpture; vertical lines belie support and strength lending the monumental quality wall horizontal lines have a somewhat less dramatic effect. Convex lines can create tension while concave lines often indicate either real or implied force.
  93. Describe the element of sculpture design known as movement.
    Movement – generally an implied effect; often a function of reflected light that can be altered through the manipulation of the sculptures mass. Some sculptors, such as Alexander Calder, employee actual movement in their work through mobiles or similar effects.
  94. Describe the element of sculpture design known as scale.
    Scale – the relationship of work; often a product of the manipulation of other elements such as mass.
  95. Describe the element of sculpture design known as texture.
    Texture – the service quality of the work; primarily manipulated to either enhance or diminish light reflectivity and shadowing.
  96. Describe the element of sculpture design known as color.
    Color – achieved through a variety of effects; can often add a sense of realism or a particular quality, such as age, to a work.
  97. Describe the drawing principle of shape.
    Shape is an aspect of form which constitutes the individual masses, groupings or aesthetics that the artist used to render the overall work.
  98. Describe the drawing principle of form.
    Form – it is form, combined with content which constitutes the basis of the art work itself; it is related to shape.
  99. Describe the drawing principle of proportion.
    Proportion – refers to the symmetrical three dimensionality or solidity of a work. In representational art, the intent is to create an illusion of reality by rendering a work which is convincing and form. The mathematical concept known as the Golden Mean is often employed, either purposefully or accidentally, when rendering proportion. Put simply, it is the precept that the proportions of the smaller part two of the larger part of a whole is equal to that of the larger part to the whole.
  100. Explain what is meant by mixed-media and provide a brief overview of its history as an art form.
    • Mixed-media is a broad term which describes the relatively awkward combination of a variety of different, often every day, objects for affect. Dadaists, surrealist and futurist have been the primary forerunners of mixed-media art. A notable example of early mixed-media work is pop artist Tom Wesselmann use of three-dimensional objects such as tables and chairs producing form of painted canvas for affect.
    • Another example is French Expressionists Marcel Duchamp's display of a bicycle wheel mounted on the top of a kitchen stool.
    • American sculptor Claes Oldenburg gained notoriety for his and Norma's environmental mixed-media work, including oversized hamburgers, telephones and other common, everyday objects made large.
    • Collage is a form of mixed-media which often consist of a combining previously disparate photographs or other two-dimensional work into a single piece for affect.
  101. What are some metal sculpting techniques?
    • Soldering
    • Riveting
    • Tempering
    • Welding
    • Painting and finishing
  102. Describe the metal sculpting technique known as soldering.
    Soldering – a joint created using low heat and a soldering compound of soft metal; easy to perform although relatively weak in strength.
  103. Describe the metal sculpting technique known as riveting.
    Riveting – a simple method of permanently joining relatively thin pieces of metal.
  104. Describe the metal sculpting technique known as temporary.
    Tempering – a method of altering the hardness inelasticity of a sheet or other piece of metal.
  105. Describe the metal sculpting technique known as welding.
    Welding – available through a variety of methods, it is a permanent means of joining metal through a high heat melting process, flame welding is preferred over the arc method for modeling due to its lower heat requirements.
  106. Describe the metal sculpting technique known as painting and finishing.
    Painting and fishing – a variety of methods are suitable for finishing metalwork. The service is typically repaired by an adhesive process such as sanding prior to applying paint. Middle can also be finished chemically through asset or phosphate bath, Parkerizing or similar methods.
  107. Describe the process of dry point.
    • Dry points is an intaglio painting process where a copper or zinc plate is directly inscribed with a pointed steel needle or jewel.
    • The incising process is marked by a ragged edge or birth which is almost imperceptibly small. Once printed, the effect is one of the softness. First(are usually of exceptional quality and subsequent prints less so due to the wearing down that occurs to the distinctive ragged edge. One of the appeals of dry print is the fact that it can be used on a metal plate with as much ease and flexibility pencil on paper. Because it is a relatively easy process, the artist is able to execute design at cease almost as fast as his inspiration.
    • Historically, dry point has been used since time of Rembrandt by many artists who combined it with other printing techniques to enhance engravings and etchings.
  108. Describe the historic use of wood as a medium.
    • Early users, who typically carved mass in child's for rituals, included primitive people of Africa, Mexico, pollen easier and Australia. Egypt says began using word around 2000 BC and its popularity continued through medieval times and the Renaissance. Greeks for using carved word inlay with ivory and gold from around 800 BC onward. Later, Romans decorated with chariots, furniture and boats. The wooden interiors of the Renaissance era became very popular throughout Europe, eventually taking root in England. Gradually, many would carvers have transitioned away from working alongside architects and cabinetmakers towards fine art sculpting.
    • In Europe, as elsewhere, availability tend to affect type choice but generally variety of wood which were both strong and lightweight were preferred. Linden was primarily used in Germany, white popular was preferred in Italy, Oak by the Dutch and walnut in southern France. It's noteworthy that medieval painters could be fined by their guilds for using inferior quality materials.
  109. Explain what carving and engraving and provide an illustration of the difference between the two.
    • What carving is an ancient art which has changed very little in its history. The process is relatively straightforward. After selecting a suitable wood, most carving is done with a limited set of tools to create works which do not typically exhibit an abundance of fine detail. Engraving is a more refined version of carving and is sometimes a plenary step other artistic activities such as printmaking or find details and exact shapes are desired. Several varieties of wood can be used successfully by the engraver although Boxwood is a preferred type for its favorable characteristics. What is sawn crossbreeding which results in a block with both a tighter grain in better shape holding ability.
    • Due to its exacting nature, engraving often requires tools similar to those used by copper and sheet metal workers. The tools are arranged into groups such as gravers, tenant tools, scorpers, split stickers, small chisels. A typical beginning set includes flat, round, burning and lozenge, as well as both large and small you can be cutters.
  110. Define the term binder as it relates to oil painting and explain the different types along with their source or production.
    • Binder is the medium into which the paint pigment is suspended.
    • Three successive process of layering, the mixture dries form a type of skin which allows an even distribution of paint particles to form on the surface.
    • The most common Binder is linseed oil. Although linseed oil is available in a number of different varieties, the type most suitable for painting is produced by cold pressing flax seeds. While produced in this way is rare and expensive. A more common alternative is oil refined by a combination of steam, sulfuric acid and water. This method produces oil ranging in a wide tone from pale to deep Amber. Middle toned oil is considered ideal.
    • Stand oil is a honey like thick variant of linseed oil used as a base in which to grind pigment for glazing.
    • Poppy oil is frequently used instead of linseed oil for paler colors and whites or as a modifier of linseed oil color.
    • Cold pressed walnut oil is a good fast train alternative, although it can be expensive and have a short shelf life.
  111. List and briefly describe the alternative (non-canvas) supports for oil painting.
    • What has a long history in use and makes a good support provided it is properly seasoned and treated. Mahogany, when cradled, is quite common and, when used as a facing layer in plywood, is less prone to cracking and distortion than solid wood. Smooth and rough cardboard are composition materials that afford favorable characteristics for rigidity and absorption.
    • Chipboard is another word alternative that, when properly primed, makes a good support that does not require cradling.
    • Metal is less commonly used to support. Historically, copper, zinc and aluminum have been tried with varying degrees of success although minor and use of metal as a pain support is usually limited to either copper or brass. Iron and steel sheets are generally avoided due to problems with corrosion. Metal should be rough and prior to application in order to properly hold the paint.
  112. Explain the mixing and application process tempera paint.
    • Tempera paint has been traditionally created by mixing pigments and distilled water with the yoke of fresh hens eggs. As the water evaporates the egg pigment mixture dry ice to form a thin yet hard layer of color.
    • The qualities of the paint and resulting effects can be altered through the addition of wax, oils and gum Arabic.
    • Many artists will premix the tempera pigment with small amounts of distilled water to create a thick paste for storage in airtight jurors some pigments require the addition of all to aid in the feasts longevity. Pre-mixing makes the paint easier to work in most cases although a few pigments will harden if left stored in this way. Premixed tempera's are also commercially available. Some are known to drive more slowly than home or studio mixes so that artists should use care when selecting them. Tempera is extremely fast drying and known for its ability to retain its original, fresh pigment color for many years after application, resisting the darkening and yellowing and aging effects common to oils.
  113. Describe watercolor brush, water and support structure selection.
    • Watercolor artists are very demanding and brush selection. Most use flat or chisel brushes or find quality care such as Sable or, more recently, Chinese hogs hair which is suitable for the fine point, detailed work. Less expensive alternatives include squirrel and ox hairbrushes. Synthetics are typically avoided by most serious artists. Brush size for most artists begin at one and range through 12.
    • While some artists choose the traditional easel. Many prefer to paint very close to the paper surface itself, propping it up on a table in the studio or resting the paper directly on their knees.
    • Distilled water should be used whenever possible. Two separate containers should be used – one for brush cleaning and the other for color slaking.
  114. Illustrate the pastel technique and briefly discuss how various effects are achieved.
    The artist begins by laying out their assortment of pastels on a cardboard or cloth pallet arranged by color and tone. Many times the next step involves making an underlain drawing with charcoal. Once the artist begins work, pastel tips may be adjusted to achieve a desired effect – sharpened for fine lines or gold for heavier lines. By laying the end of the pastel flat against the surface, a relatively broad area of color can be applied. Through the variation of applied pressure, more or less pastel can be forced into the green of the paper. The effect varies depending upon the paper chosen – for fine campus a flat color effect is achieved were as with ingres or glass paper, the paper's texture may show through. Varying contrasts can be accomplished through the use of pastel material on a brush or torchon. This is the preferred method for applying a very late contrast across the picture. Shading is generally a product of hatching and crosshatching with different colors.
  115. What are the various type of charcoal available?
    • Stick
    • Compressed
    • Charcoal Pencils
    • Powdered Charcoal
    • Needed Putty Erasers
  116. Describe the type of charcoal known as stick.
    Stick – produce from Willow or vine and typically supplied in 6 inch links, this form is available and variable degrees of thickness and hardness, correctable by dusting. Smaller diameter pencils can be sharpened with sandpaper although large diameter pencils should be sharpened with the blade.
  117. Describe the type of charcoal known as compressed.
    Compressed – manufactured from powdered charcoal and a binder, relatively strong, supplied in 3 and 4 inch links and stronger than stick charcoal; errors can be somewhat more difficult to correct.
  118. Describe the type of charcoal known as charcoal pencils.
    Charcoal pencils – much like a traditional pencil with the lead being compressed charcoal, ideal for fine work and detail, available in a variable degrees of density and thickness.
  119. Describe the type of charcoal known as powdered charcoal.
    Powdered charcoal – produced by rolling blotting paper and pencil form, very hard and suitable when a variety of tonal effects are desired.
  120. Describe kneaded putty erasers as associated with charcoal.
    kneaded putty erasers – use for error correction, can be shaped to a fine point for detail correction but should be considered unsuitable for large corrections.
  121. What are the various types of ink available to the artist?
    • Drawing inks
    • non-waterproof inks
  122. How is drawing ink you?
    Drying inks – typically waterproof, these are available in a variety of colors including India ink which is common for black drawing work; they dry to a gloss finish.
  123. Describe non-waterproof ink.
    • Non-waterproof ink – provides in effect similar to watercolor and that the absorbed into the paper and drive to a matte finish the color range is relatively small for this variety.
    • Inks have a tendency to settle at the bottom of the container over time so shaking before use is essential for proper consistency.
  124. Explain the importance of good paper selection and environmental factors that can affect preservation.
    There are two basic reasons for selecting the best quality paper affordable. First, better quality papers selected for its particular characteristics helps ensure that the artist has the most satisfactory surface possible on which to work. Secondly, artists tend to sell their work for a substantial sum when possible. Likewise, the buyer should receive a high-quality item for good longevity that is reasonably resistant to fade and other deterioration characteristics. Environmental factors which affect durability include heat, cold, moisture, mold and mildew, sunlight or other strong light and the inherent acidity of the paper itself. Fading is the greatest risk and it can be mitigated with proper storage techniques although many papers have a finite shelf life. For this reason, the artist should only keep a modest quantity on hand under most circumstances.
  125. Describe typical material selection considerations for the stone carver.
    The car must first determine his or her objective for the work. The stone with distinctive characteristics such as weathering may be favorable upon certain conditions. For most work, however, freshly quarried stone is usually best as it lacks weathering which can sometimes make carving more difficult. A stone Spanish color can sometimes be determined by waiting it, particularly if the surface is dry or rough. Stone will often contain various flaws such as cracks, flaws or weak layers. These flaws may sometimes be visible but more often their hidden elements which might prove troublesome later. The sound a stone produces when tapped is often indicative of quality as well – a ring or ping sound is usually good whereas a stone which produces a dull, but like sound should probably be avoided.
  126. Describe preferred acrylic paint brushes and brush mark management techniques.
    • Most brush marks can be eliminated by applying a thin layer of diluted paint thoroughly to the campus and then followed by a dry rag to ensure full saturation of the week. Once his primary layer has dried for a few minutes, a second coat can be applied to a varying shade of light or darkness. Finally, once dried the third coat is applied to a traditional, even manner.
    • Acrylics are well-suited for intentional brush marking and some artists have created well-known works that incorporate them into the overall effect.
    • Renowned British artist Tom Phillips is known for his use of stippling, hatching and dry brushing to achieve various effects. He often uses square sign writing brushes in his work.
    • Acrylics are also well-suited for dry brushing techniques and can be used successfully in either deluded or undiluted form. To achieve this effect, apply pressure is applied to the brush in order to fan out the bristles.
  127. Provide a description of secondary materials and equipment commonly employed by the pencil artist.
    • Surface choice is important to a pencil artists since certain services can lend themselves more favorably to the successfulness of lines. Bristol board were ivory card are often preferred. Depending upon the work attempted, favorable results can be achieved with harder lairds on rougher surfaces such as watercolor and Ingres paper.
    • Some artists will draw on paper which has been prepared using watercolors for additional effect.
    • Most serious pencil craftsmen and artists avoid mechanical sharpeners which have a tendency to break or otherwise mangle points. Instead sharp scalpels or knives are used to achieve the desired point.
    • Erasers, wall a verbal means of error correction for pencil work, should be employed to minimally or with caution since the underlying surface is almost always damaged to some degree by their use. Pencil work lends itself quite well to the use of fixative. A variety of fixative's are available in ready made, aerosol, or liquid form for use in atomizers or small devices.
  128. Provide a basic overview of the construction and general capabilities of an artistic airbrush.
    • Though available in a variety of sizes from a number of different manufacturers, modern artistic airbrushes all generally work on the same principle. Compressed air forced through a progressively narrowed space to form a vacuum. Paint is drawn from the reservoir and combined with the airflow to produce a mixture which is passed through a special aperture called an atomizer. Under most circumstances the atomizer can be replaced with a unit of a different size and spray pattern. Air and paint flow are both controlled by actuating a switch or similar mechanism located somewhere on the devices housing.
    • Lever action airbrushes allow a variable rate of flow depending upon the extent that the lever is compressed.
    • Although not easily mastered at first, once an artist develops his or her skill a variety of them impressive lightning, toning and shading effects can be achieved.
  129. Explain why surface preparation is important.
    Service preparation and its importance will vary depending upon the intended work. In most cases it's necessary to prevent pigment, solvents and oil from deteriorating the underlying surface.
  130. List three terms commonly associated with surface preparation.
    • Support
    • Size
    • Ground
  131. Define the term support commonly associated with surface preparation.
    Support – the material to which the paint, ink or other marking methods is applied; examples of common support include canvas, cardboard and paper.
  132. Define the term size commonly associated with surface preparation.
    Size – water-based preparation and glues used to isolate solvents and oil in paint from the underlying support; useful when minimal to no soaking is desired.
  133. Define the term ground commonly associated with surface preparation.
    Ground – similar to a primer in non-artistic form of painting, this is a layer of paint or found which provides the preferred surface for the application of the finished layer of paint; gesso is a common ground used in various kinds of painting.
  134. Explain the history in preparation/equipment considerations of exterior wall painting.
    • Modern, artistic wall painting has primarily arisen from community or populist social movements. Noble work was produced during the 20th century and locations such as Mexico, Chicago, New York and London. The greatest consideration in wall painting is the atmospheric attack the work will invariably suffer. Rain, wind, sunlight and atmospheric pollutants are all factors which affect longevity.
    • The wall should be as clean as possible prior to beginning the work. Including treatment, if necessary for fungus and mildew growth. Sources of moisture such as drainpipes and windowsills should be identified. Pre-existing pain should be properly removed for the most satisfactory result and the wall should be rendered, or primed, with a sand/cement mixture prior to beginning work.
    • Outdoor motion or silicone-based paint work well for most surface other than brick but final and water-based paint should be avoided.
    • Overcoats such as clear varnish and polyurethane are only likely to trap moisture. Avoid them.
    • The most satisfactory wall paintings originate through careful planning, such as scaling up a pre-sketch drawing through the use of a grid.
  135. Describe the various types of perspective.
    • Plain-liner perspective
    • Angular perspective
    • Three-point oblate perspective
    • Curvilinear perspective
    • Cylindrical or panorama perspective
    • Spherical perspective
  136. Define plain-linear prospective
    Plain-linear prospective – occurs when objects closer to the point of sight appears bigger than those which are farther away
  137. Define angular perspective.
    Angular perspective – placement which causes two faces of an object to be openly to the picture plane; parallel lines coverage on tool vanishing points on the horizon.
  138. Define three-point oblique perspective.
    Three-point oblique perspective – placement which causes three faces of an object to be openly to the picture plane and parallel lines coverage onto vanishing points on the horizon.
  139. Define curvilinear perspective.
    Curvilinear perspective – is made on a curved rather than flat picture plane.
  140. Define cylindrical or panorama perspective.
    Cylindrical or panorama perspective – shows a picture like a panorama; the picture plane itself may be cylindrical.
  141. Define spherical perspective.
    Spherical perspective – projection onto a spherical picture plane; similar to the effect created by a wide angle lens photograph where lines appear to be curved.
  142. Explain consideration for proper sculpture display.
    • Lighting is, perhaps, the most crucial aspect of successful sculpture display. Light should illuminate the work without becoming a part of it. Shadow should be in the eliminated whenever possible, unless specifically preferred for affect.
    • Positioning with respect to eye level is crucial as well. If a piece is too low, the top may be visible and distracting, whereas if it's too high, the overall effect can be asymmetrically diminished.
    • It is often best to mount freestanding work on pedestals or stands made of stone, metal or wood. The stand should be properly matched to the work so as to complement rather than distract from the intended effect.
    • Covering the bottom of a piece with felt will often help prevent a sculpture from slipping off its stand or pedestal. Some artists choose to mount their work to the display with screws or nails. For outdoor displays, atmospheric conditions should be considered. Seal all materials susceptible to moisture. As an added precaution, it is often advisable to waterproof all but the hardest varieties of stone despite their relatively weather resistant qualities.
  143. List some hardwoods.
    • Chestnut
    • Ebony
    • Elm
    • Holly
    • Mahogany
    • Maple
    • Rosewood
    • Oak
    • Walnut
  144. Describe the characteristics of Chestnut.
    Chestnut – a medium, light brown hardwood with a distinct grain. Durable and provides a good finish although possibly more prone to splitting.
  145. Describe the characteristics of ebony.
    Ebony – an exceptionally hardwood with a distinct, fine-grained and rich, dark brown to black color. It is not easily obtainable.
  146. Describe the characteristics of Elm.
    L – yellow to reddish brown with a distinct grain, can be difficult to work.
  147. Describe the characteristics of Holly.
    Holly – a white wood with fine grain, smooth and easily workable.
  148. Describe the characteristics of mahogany.
    Mahogany – easily workable British, Brown Hardwood with a variable grain.
  149. Describe the characteristics of Maple.
    Maple – tight-grained, reddish-brown wood which finishes well.
  150. Describe the characteristics of Oak.
    Oak – popular, very durable and easy to work with a variable appearance from yellow to dark brown, has a distinctive grain.
  151. Describe the characteristics of Rosewood.
    Rosewood – valued for its even texture and color that varies from reddish-brown to purple and black.
  152. Describe the characteristics of walnut.
    Walnut – easily workable, provides a good finish, expensive, may be difficult to obtain, generally chocolate brown in color with a rich grain.
  153. Describe two types of foam sculpting plastic.
    • Polystyrene
    • Polyurethane
  154. Provide a brief overview of historical origin of carving polystyrene as an art form.
    Polystyrene – a relatively safe, non-toxic member of the thermoplastics group, it melts under heat and is soluble when exposed to certain solvents. Proper ventilation is important when working with these two methods and it should be noted that the material is highly flammable. It can be found into basic varieties. The first, exampled, is used frequently and packing and has an open cell texture. The second, known under the trademark Styrofoam, is a denser, closed cell variety.
  155. Provide a brief overview of the historical origin of carving polyurethane as an art form.
    Polyurethane – a rigid, closed cell material with variable density which is not susceptible to melting although prone to release toxic fumes when he did.
  156. Describe the use of fabric as a support for oil painting.
    Cannabis, or stretched fabric, is the most common support for oil painting. Many materials have been used as campus including linen and cotton and various weaves, unbleached calico, duck, twill, Hessian and man-made fibers. The finest, not free we've are considered optimal although looser weaves with knots are sometimes preferred when a coarser surface is desired. Cotton is relatively low-cost alternative but can be inconsistent in quality and problematic when stretching. Various weights are available for the different fabric type and are measured in ounces. Heavier weight fabrics tend to be more absorbent. Fabric color varies with material and levels of bleaching. The campus is measured and cut to desired size then later stretched over a wooden frame. It is generally a fixed by combination of strapping and gluing.
  157. Describe acrylic paint and explain the origin of its use.
    • Acrylics are pigments bound and synthetic resins or polyvinyl acetate. Characteristically similar to watercolor and tempera, they are water-soluble commotions which dry to a matte finish and lend themselves quite well to Larry.
    • Unfavorable weather conditions for expose work such as murals in Mexico during the 1920s prompted the development of paint with quick drying and stability characteristics.
    • Early adopters of acrylics included José Orzco, Diego Rivera and David Siqueiros. During the 1950s acrylics gained popularity United States and were use by such artists as Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Robert Motherwell and Kenneth Nolan in either abstract or popular form.
    • By the 1960s, acrylics became widely used in Great Britain. Notable British artists include Peter Blake, Tom Phillips, Bridget Riley and Leonard Rosoman.
  158. Describe the process of stretching watercolor paper and white is often necessary.
    • Stretching prevents lighter weight papers from buckling when color washed. The cut off weight of paper usually considers optimal for washing is about hundred and 40 pounds. Weight is an important consideration when stretching paper and the term accurately refers to the weight of a 480 sheet ream. Heavier papers need not be stretched although they are almost always clipped to a board or other suitable support prior to beginning work. Methodologies for stretching very but the common methods to soak the paper in a water tray and then place it on a drawing board, tacking the corners down with tax. The edge of the paper are often attached with gummed Brown paper tape. As the paper dries it can be repeatedly pushed smooth and talk.
    • Commercially available stretching frames about edges to be cramped between an inner and outer frame.
    • Pre-prepared paper which has been mounted on cardboard does not need stretching and is a good commercial alternative to home or studio stretching as well. It should be noted that washing often weakens paper, making it susceptible to accidental holing by a brush.
  159. Explain pastel availability and selection.
    • Pastels cannot be mixed to obtain other colors. Fortunately, there are over 600 tents commercially available from a number of reputable suppliers. An artist might need, perhaps 12 to 48 tints in total, depending on the nature of the work planned. A beginner might need a basic set of just four colors. Typically these include black, white, red and brown. Outdoor sketching is a common use of pastels that typically require a smaller quantity of them.
    • There are three basic qualities available – soft, medium and hard. Soft ride the widest range of color and are generally easier to work. Colors are typically marked Tony's tell from zero to aid which is an indication of the relative lightness or darkness of the tone. Some artists choose to make their own pastels. The process of doing so is relatively easy and inexpensive. Oil pastels are a suitable alternative for sketching or for use by an oil artists interested in drawing and underlain initial design prior to beginning work.
  160. Explain the process of protecting pastel work and considerations for the use of fixative's.
    • Permanence is a direct factor of paper impasto quality so the best materials should always be chosen when possible. Over time the pastels will affix to the paper lending a greater quality of durability. Nevertheless, many artists choose to frame their work under glass. When doing so, care should be taken to avoid contact with the glass service itself and to properly seal out dust and other contaminants. If framing is not feasible, pastel work should be stored in a stack with paper tissue, greaseproof paper or cellophane interleaved between layers. When affixing the paper tube a mount, generally it's best to glue the top edge only using flour or starch paste.
    • Care should be taken when using fixative's with pastels as colors are particular susceptible to doling and distortion. Of the artist to do choose to use fixative, some fix at various layers prior to completing the work while others will only fix the final product. Fast drying fixative's are generally best.
  161. The find gouache painting and briefly describe its origin.
    • Definitions of the technique very among artists but most agree that gouache is opaque watercolor painting. It lacks the transparency of watercolor due to its covering power and opacity. It is applied similarly to brush oils but dries more quickly.
    • It is reflective by the power of the material in the pigment itself rather than relying on grounds for such a property as in watercolors and tempera. Wash is often used for color reproduction work. The technique was first developed by an European monk around the 14th century who added seem quite to watercolor.
  162. Describe support selection other equipment used by pastel artists.
    • Paper selection is crucial for pastel artist since the underlying support is usually a significant factor in the ultimate color and texture of the finished work.
    • Specially made pastel paper is available which exhibit an Optima coarseness although any white-tented, rough textured watercolor or drawing paper is generally acceptable, as long as the papers texture is able to to the pigment from the pastel as it is pushed across the surface. Some past the work is also performed on colored paper such as Ingres which is available in a number of colors and weights. Still other artists tend paper with watercolors or gouache prior to beginning pastel work. Other supports which can be used include papered campus which has been secured to an underlying card or wallboard by glue. Pastel artist generally prefer easels or drawing boards for their work. They also employ dusters, torchon and chamois stomps for blending and special effects. Pastels can be sharp with either glass or sandpaper
  163. Provided general historical overview of modeling.
    Early examples of modeling have been found in Egyptian tombs. Greeks finished dolls and figurines from wax while Romans made death masks of important individuals. The Chinese are known to have produced ceremonial bronze vessels during the Shang Dynasty. Numerous examples of clay modeling have been found from virtually every historical error throughout the world. Fire baking and sand were later discovered to add additional properties such as durability. Terra-cotta modeling was used as early as the Greek, Roman and Etruscan era and gained popularity during the Renaissance.
  164. List the three main groups of wood carving tools.
    • Carving
    • Shaping
    • Carpentry
  165. Describe the carving group of tools use it wood carving.
    Carving – primary tool includes the couch and chisel. The gals has a variable cutting edge which is curved and shaped. Both tools are available in various sizes and shapes including bent and curved to provide access to inaccessible areas of a piece such as a hollow. Veneers and foods or V-shaped gouges are used for fine work.
  166. Describe the shaping group of tools used in wood carving.
    Basic shapers includes rifflers, files and rasps. Files are finer than rasps while riffler has a curved edge for rounded work. Surform have a built-in space for shavings which prevent the tool from clogging.
  167. Describe the carpentry group of tools used in wood carving.
    Carpentry – half rip saws are the most popular due to the ability to cut with as well as across the grain. Bow saws are useful for curved cutting wall the fret saw is good for flat pieces. Wooden mallets are useful although selection is important as they tend to be heavy

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