psychology 40 studies final review
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Describe the methods and outcomes of Seligman's experiments with dogs' that showed learned helplessness.
- in the experiment, Seligman had two groups of dogs together, in a box, receiving electrical shocks. one dog had control of the shocks, the other dog didn't have any control, it had to wait until the control dog turn off the shocks.
- even though the both sets of dogs recieved the same amount of electrical shocks. Later testing of the dogs showed that the helpless dogs wouldn't try to escape further electrical shock testing. they "learned to be helpless"
Describe the methods of Asch's conformity study in which subjects compared lengths of lines
Asch had unknowing participants in a group of paid actors, trying to compare lengths of lines. the paid actors would select the wrong answers. and the subjects would begin to conform their answers to the group either out of uncomfortableness or because they were unsure of themselves...
however if there was at least one of the actor selecting the right answer than the subject would also select the right answer. because they weren't alone.
Describe the procedures of milgram's obedience study
he had a authority figure in the room telling participants to continue as they objected to giving shocks to outside participants.
Describe the findings of Milgram's obedience study - give percentage of people who thought and actually went beyond 300 volts.
65 % of the participants went all the way to the last fatal shock with the authority figure instructions.
Describe the meaning of Milgram's study with regard to the major factors that influence behavior/compliance
- the fact that the experimenter was an expert or Authority figure, the participants felt compelled to listen to them
- they knew it was wrong, and felt considerable stress, and objected frequently, but none the less still continued
Describe the methods, results, and the lesson to be learned from Zimbardo's prison study
- During the zimbardo study, the prison guards, the inmates, and zimbardo himself all filled into the roles that they thought they should be filling up.
- the Guards become brutal, non-caring, etc.
- the inmates, forgot they were free people, became depress, and even hatched a escape plan.
- zimbardo became a warden, and forgot that the health, and well being of his participants was the most important thing.
the experiment had to be put to an end early.
Desribe the methods of Darley and Latane's experiments of bystander apathy.
- participants were placed in a empty room on the phone with either 1 other, 2 other, or 5 other people on the phone, (it was an actual live recording) and one of the people on the phone would act out a seizure on the phone and ask for help.
- with the the phone calls being 1 on 1, 100% of the people asked for help in average time under a minute.
- with 3 people on the call, it went down to 85% (time not listed)
- in group 3 the response was 60% with the time over 3 minutes average
Describe the results of Rosenhan's study in which healthy experimenters posed as mentally disordered patients in a mental hospital
- none of the doctors could recongnize the "patients" as being sane, and assumed that they were ill.
- the average time spent was 19 days, and they required that all people admit they were mentally ill, and take medicine
- however, many of the patients could tell the experimenters were faking.
Describe Wolpe's methods in using Systematic desensitization
- 3 steps.
- 1)he would establish a "hierarchy of fears" with each patient. one for each different phobia, as some patients had more than 1 phobia.
- 2) he would then teach the patient to relax and meditate.
- 3) he would then get patients to meditate every-time they thought of the hierarchy, and slowly but surely the patients were able to go through the whole list of fears without feeling anxiety.
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