Schizophrenia Studies 1
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What did Meltzer find?
66% of patients that did not respond to typical antipsychotics responded to a 12 month course of Clozapine
What did Leuch et all find?
- Did a meta analysis of studies
- Atypical drugs were only moderately better for type 2 symptoms
- Reviewed four studies involving atypical drugs
- In 2 the drugs were slightly more effective
- In 1 they were the same
- In 1 they were slightly worse
What did McGlashan and Fenton find?
- The catatonic subtype is very rare and could be caused by the anti psychotics that are taken
- It isn't a true subtype of schizophrenia and should be dropped as such
What did Lieberman find?
- Some people stay in the active phase for many years
- In these cases type one symptoms in early years are replaced by type 2 symptoms later in life
What did Kendler et al find?
- First degree relatives of schizophrenics are 18x more likely to develop schizophrenia
- The national average is 1% likelihood
What did Gottesman and Shields find?
The more genetically similar you are to a schizophrenic, the more likely you are to be schizophrenic yourself
- Person with:
- Schizophrenic parent: 17%
- Schizophrenic sibling: 9%
- Schizophrenic sibling and parent: 12.9%
- Schizophrenic parents: 46%
What were the results of the 5 studies from 1969-1976?
- Concordance rates for schizophrenia between:
- DZ twins: 14%
- MZ twins: 46%
What did Heston find?
Of 47 mothers with schizophrenia who's children were adopted within days of birth by typical mothers, the instance of schizophrenia was 16%
What did Kety find?
High rates of schizophrenia were found in people who's biological parents had it but who had been adopted by psychologically healthy parents
What did Tienary find?
- 155 adopted children with schizophrenic mothers were compared to a matched group with no family history of schizophrenia
- 10% in group 1 were schizophrenic
- 1% in group 2 were schizophrenic
What did Myakawa find?
- Studied DNA of schizophrenics
- Affected seemed to have an affected gene PPP3CC- associated with the production of an enzyme
- GMO mice deprived of this gene displayed schizophrenic symptoms
What did Wong et al find?
- PET scans were carried out on the brains of schizophrenics
- A higher density of dopamine activity was recorded in schizophrenic brains than the control group
What did Durand and Barlow find?
- Serotonin plays a bigger part in schizophrenia
- Serotonin is a master neurotransmitter that controls other neurochemicals such as dopamine
- New drugs such as clozapine that are more effective in reducing symptoms affect serotonin rather than dopamine
What did Bateson find?
- Parents communicate contradictory messages to their children
- They say one thing but their tone or gestures or tone communicate the opposite
- One message is conveyed on the verbal level but another is conveyed on the non verbal level
What did Brown find?
Schizophrenia development is augmented when someone is in a negative emotional climate
What did Schiffman et al find?
Expressed emotion is a stress factor possibly causing or contributing to the development of schizophrenia
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