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What did Butzlaff and Hooley find?
- Over 20 studies of expressed emotion were reviewed
- 70% of schizophrenics in such families relapsed within a year
- 30% of schizophrenics with families not displaying EE relapsed
What did Berger find?
Schizophrenics reported a higher level of double bind than non schizophrenics
What did Tienari find?
- Adopted children in Finland with schizophrenic parents were more likely than a control group with non schizophrenic parents to become schizophrenics themselves
- This difference only occurred when the adopted family was judged to be disturbed or dysfunctional
What did Liem find?
There was no difference in patterns of communication in families with a schizophrenic child and families without
What did Hall and Levin find?
In a review of family studies, no evidence of a contradiction in verbal and non verbal messages between children with schizophrenia and parents
What did Vaughn and Leff find?
- EE plays an important part in schizophrenia relapse
- The extent of emotional expression in families is a strong predictor of relapse rates amongst discharged patients
- 51% in high EE homes
- 13% in low EE homes
What did Szasz find?
- Labelling someone as being mentally ill is nothing more than the medicalisation of madness
- Using terms such as 'treatment' or 'illness' is a form of social control that robs the individual of their liberty
- Labelling people is a way of excluding those who don't conform to social norms
What did Scheff find?
- Schizophrenia is a learned social role determined by labelling
- The label makes the person act in a way to fit it and changes the way others interpret their behaviour
- Knowing somebody suffers from a psychiatric or psychological disorder creates a stigma
- This creates feelings of social inadequacy in the person
What did Rosenhan find?
Once 'pseudo-patients' had been given the label of schizophrenics their subsequent behaviour was interpreted in a different way
What did Rosenhan find in his follow up study?
- Rosenhan claimed that pseudo patients would attempt to gain entrance to a hospital that knew of his previous study over a 3 month period
- Of the 193 admissions 41 were considered to be impostors
- In reality, Rosenhan sent nobody
What did Spitzer find?
- Staff at hospitals could not just turn away patients who turned up with symptoms, they have a duty of care
- Most were given the label of 'schizophrenia in remission' which is rarely used and suggests that staff were unconvinced of their illness
What did Cole et al find?
- P's took chlorpromazine for 6 weeks whilst a control group took sugar pills
- 0% got worse (48% in the control group)
- 5% showed no change (13% in CG)
- 18% showed some improvement (14% in CG)
- 75% showed much improvement (25% in CG)
What did Loebel find?
- Not all patients respond to conventional drugs
- 16% failed to show any improvement within 12 months of the first treatment
What did Hill find?
- 30% of people taking anti psychotic drugs developed Tardive Dyskinasea
- In 75% of cases, the condition is irreversible
What did Hogarty find?
- Group 1: medication only
- Group 2: medication and social skills training
- Group 3: medication and family therapy
- Group 4: medication, social skills training and family therapy
- Group 1 relapse rate: 40%
- Group 2 relapse rate: 20%
- Group 3 relapse rate: 20%
- Group 4 relapse rate: 0%
What did Hogarty find after his study?
- Patients were followed up for a second year after family therapy and social training had ceased
- Higher levels of relapse were observed
- This suggests that therapy should continue, even when the patient is in the recovery phase
What did Doane et al find?
Treatments focussed on reducing EE in families reduced relapse rates
What did Goldstein and Falloon find?
Family therapy is very effective when combined with drugs