chemistry final

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jfindley
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274714
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chemistry final
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2014-05-18 14:57:25
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chemistry
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  1. What instrument measures the volume of a liquid?
    graduated cylinder
  2. What is used to mix solutions?
    flask
  3. Where should broken glass be thrown away?
    broken glass box
  4. mass is measured in ___
    grams
  5. 1 cm3= ____
    1 mililiter
  6. what can be used to measure volume?
    • meter stick
    • graduated cylinder
    • ruler
  7. What is used to measure mass?
    balance
  8. What is an intensive physical property?
    does not change no matter how much matter is present
  9. What is mass?
    the ammount of matter in a substance
  10. What is an extensive physical property?
    one that changes depending on how much of a substance you have
  11. What is clean air?
    a homogenous mixture
  12. What is filtration?
    uses a barrier to seperated solid from a liquid
  13. What is distillation?
    seperation of liquids based on different boiling points
  14. What is crystallization?
    seperation resulting in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a soultion
  15. What is chromatography?
    seperates components of a mixture on the tendency of each to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material
  16. Matter that has a uniform and unchanging compostition is a ___
    substance
  17. What is a compound?
    a chemical composition of two or more different elements joined together in fixed proportions
  18. What is an element?
    substance that can not be broken down into other substances
  19. Compounds can be broken down into their elements by___-
    chemical changes
  20. Phase changes are ____ changes
    pysical
  21. What is an alloy?
    a homogenous mixture of metals
  22. What is the formula for density?
    density= mass/volume
  23. What is an isotope?
    atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
  24. What is the charge of a beta particle?
    negative
  25. What is the charge of an alpha particle?
    postive
  26. Atomic number= _____
    number of protons
  27. What is atomic mass?
    the average mass of all isotopes of an element
  28. What is an alpha particle?
    He
  29. What is a beta particle?
    e
  30. What is a positron?
    e
  31. Bombardment comes ____ the arrow
  32. before
  33. emission or decay comes ____ the arrow
    after
  34. When is an element radioactive?
    atomic number is greater than 82
  35. What is the formula for the number of half lives?
    number of half lives=total time/ length of half life
  36. What is the formula for the ammount remaining? (half lives)
    • ammount remaining=orignal ammount/ 2n
    • n= number of half lives
  37. What is the formula for the length of a half life?
    length of half life= total time/ number of half lives
  38. What is nuclear fission?
    splitting of an atom
  39. What is nuclear fusion?
    fuseing two atoms together; occurs on the sun
  40. What is a gamma particle?
  41. What is the formula for frequency?
  42. What is c?
    • the speed of light
    • 3.0 x 108 m/s
  43. What is the formula for energy?
    energy= h * f
  44. What is h?
    • plancks constant
    • 6.626 x 10-34
  45. What is spectropscopy?
    spectural lines used to indentify an element
  46. What are n l m and s?
    • n= prime quantum number
    • l=orbital shape
    • m= orentation of orbital in space
    • s=spin
  47. How many electrons can each sublevel hold?
    • s=2
    • p=6
    • d=10
    • f=14
  48. What is Aufbaus principle?
    electrons fill lowest energy level possible first
  49. What is Pauli exclusion principle?
    electrons in the same orbital must have oppistite spins
  50. What is Hund's Rule?
    no orbital can have two electrons untill all orbitals in a sublevel have one
  51. How many blanks does each sublevel get for orbital notation?
    • s= 1 blank
    • p=3 blanks
    • d= 5 blanks
    • f= 7 blanks
  52. Mass number= ___
    protons + neutrons
  53. What is an atomic emission spectrum?
    • set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms of an element 
    • an elements fingerprint
  54. What is ground state?
    lowest energy state
  55. What is excited state?
    electrons move to higher energy levels when atom gaines energy
  56. What is a period?
    a row on periodic table
  57. What is a family?
    a column on the periodic table
  58. What is a cation?
    • a postive charged ion
    • metals
  59. What is an anion?
    • a negatively charged ion
    • nonmetals
  60. What is atomic radius?
    half the distance between two like atoms nuceli
  61. atomic radius ___ going down the periodic table and ____ going left to right
    • gets larger
    • gets smaller
  62. What is ionization energy?
    energy required to remove an electron from an atom
  63. Ionization energy ____ going down periodic table and_____ going left to right
    • decreases 
    • increases
  64. What is electronegativity?
    the attraction of an atom to free electrons
  65. Electronegativity ___ going down table and ___ going left to right
    • decreases
    • increases
  66. describe the properties of ionic compounds.
    • high boiling point
    • hard
    • conduct electricity
  67. describe the properties of covalent compounds.
    • low melting point
    • soft
    • not conductors
  68. what are polar covalent bonds?
    electrons shared unequally creating partially charged ends
  69. What are nonpolar covalent bonds?
    electrons shared equally
  70. What is the electronegativity difference between ionic bonds?
    greater than or equal to 1.7
  71. What is the electronegativity difference between polar covalent bonds?
    between 1.7 and .3
  72. What is the electonegativity difference between nonpolar covalent bonds?
    less than or equal to .3
  73. Ionic bonds are bewteen ___ and ___ and ___ electrons
    • metal and nonmental
    • exchange
  74. Covalent bonds are between ___ and ___ and ___ electrons
    • nonmetal and nonmetal 
    • share
  75. The central atom for a lewis structure is frequently ___ never ____ rarely ____ and often the atom with lowest _____.
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • halogen
    • electronegativity
  76. How do you name ionic compounds?
    • name metal 
    • name nonmetal and change ending to ide
    • use roman numerals to identify charge if transition metal
  77. What is the formula alkane hydrocarbons?
    CnH2n+2
  78. What is the formula for alkene hydrocarbons?
    CnH2n
  79. What are the prefixes for hydrocarbons?
    • 1- meth
    • 2-eth
    • 3-prop
    • 4-but
    • 5-pent
    • 6-hex
    • 7-hept
    • 8-oct
    • 9-non
    • 10-dec
  80. What are the prefixes for naming covalent compounds?
    • 1-mono
    • 2-di
    • 3-tri
    • 4-tetra
    • 5-penta
    • 6-hexa
    • 7-hepta
    • 8-octa
    • 9-nona
    • 10-deca
  81. How do you name an acid of hydrogen + a nonmetal?
    Hydro (nonmetals name)ic acid
  82. How do you name and acid of hydrogen + and ate polyatomic?
    (polyatomic root name)ic acid
  83. How do you name an acid of hydrogen + ite polyatomic?
    (polyatomic root name)ous acid
  84. What is the formula for alkyne hydrocarbons?
    CnH2n-2
  85. What is avogardo's constant?
    6.02 x 1023
  86. What is the formula for percent yeild?
    percent yield= (acutal/ theoretical) x 100

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