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What instrument measures the volume of a liquid?
What is used to mix solutions?
Where should broken glass be thrown away?
broken glass box
mass is measured in ___
what can be used to measure volume?
- meter stick
- graduated cylinder
What is used to measure mass?
What is an intensive physical property?
does not change no matter how much matter is present
What is mass?
the ammount of matter in a substance
What is an extensive physical property?
one that changes depending on how much of a substance you have
What is clean air?
a homogenous mixture
What is filtration?
uses a barrier to seperated solid from a liquid
What is distillation?
seperation of liquids based on different boiling points
What is crystallization?
seperation resulting in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a soultion
What is chromatography?
seperates components of a mixture on the tendency of each to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material
Matter that has a uniform and unchanging compostition is a ___
What is a compound?
a chemical composition of two or more different elements joined together in fixed proportions
What is an element?
substance that can not be broken down into other substances
Compounds can be broken down into their elements by___-
Phase changes are ____ changes
What is an alloy?
a homogenous mixture of metals
What is the formula for density?
What is an isotope?
atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
What is the charge of a beta particle?
What is the charge of an alpha particle?
Atomic number= _____
number of protons
What is atomic mass?
the average mass of all isotopes of an element
What is an alpha particle?
What is a beta particle?
What is a positron?
Bombardment comes ____ the arrow
emission or decay comes ____ the arrow
When is an element radioactive?
atomic number is greater than 82
What is the formula for the number of half lives?
number of half lives=total time/ length of half life
What is the formula for the ammount remaining? (half lives)
- ammount remaining=orignal ammount/ 2n
- n= number of half lives
What is the formula for the length of a half life?
length of half life= total time/ number of half lives
What is nuclear fission?
splitting of an atom
What is nuclear fusion?
fuseing two atoms together; occurs on the sun
What is a gamma particle?
What is the formula for frequency?
What is c?
- the speed of light
- 3.0 x 108 m/s
What is the formula for energy?
energy= h * f
What is h?
- plancks constant
- 6.626 x 10-34
What is spectropscopy?
spectural lines used to indentify an element
What are n l m and s?
- n= prime quantum number
- l=orbital shape
- m= orentation of orbital in space
How many electrons can each sublevel hold?
What is Aufbaus principle?
electrons fill lowest energy level possible first
What is Pauli exclusion principle?
electrons in the same orbital must have oppistite spins
What is Hund's Rule?
no orbital can have two electrons untill all orbitals in a sublevel have one
How many blanks does each sublevel get for orbital notation?
- s= 1 blank
- p=3 blanks
- d= 5 blanks
- f= 7 blanks
Mass number= ___
protons + neutrons
What is an atomic emission spectrum?
- set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms of an element
- an elements fingerprint
What is ground state?
lowest energy state
What is excited state?
electrons move to higher energy levels when atom gaines energy
What is a period?
a row on periodic table
What is a family?
a column on the periodic table
What is a cation?
- a postive charged ion
What is an anion?
- a negatively charged ion
What is atomic radius?
half the distance between two like atoms nuceli
atomic radius ___ going down the periodic table and ____ going left to right
What is ionization energy?
energy required to remove an electron from an atom
Ionization energy ____ going down periodic table and_____ going left to right
What is electronegativity?
the attraction of an atom to free electrons
Electronegativity ___ going down table and ___ going left to right
describe the properties of ionic compounds.
- high boiling point
- conduct electricity
describe the properties of covalent compounds.
- low melting point
- not conductors
what are polar covalent bonds?
electrons shared unequally creating partially charged ends
What are nonpolar covalent bonds?
electrons shared equally
What is the electronegativity difference between ionic bonds?
greater than or equal to 1.7
What is the electronegativity difference between polar covalent bonds?
between 1.7 and .3
What is the electonegativity difference between nonpolar covalent bonds?
less than or equal to .3
Ionic bonds are bewteen ___ and ___ and ___ electrons
- metal and nonmental
Covalent bonds are between ___ and ___ and ___ electrons
- nonmetal and nonmetal
The central atom for a lewis structure is frequently ___ never ____ rarely ____ and often the atom with lowest _____.
How do you name ionic compounds?
- name metal
- name nonmetal and change ending to ide
- use roman numerals to identify charge if transition metal
What is the formula alkane hydrocarbons?
What is the formula for alkene hydrocarbons?
What are the prefixes for hydrocarbons?
- 1- meth
What are the prefixes for naming covalent compounds?
How do you name an acid of hydrogen + a nonmetal?
Hydro (nonmetals name)ic acid
How do you name and acid of hydrogen + and ate polyatomic?
(polyatomic root name)ic acid
How do you name an acid of hydrogen + ite polyatomic?
(polyatomic root name)ous acid
What is the formula for alkyne hydrocarbons?
What is avogardo's constant?
6.02 x 1023
What is the formula for percent yeild?
percent yield= (acutal/ theoretical) x 100
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