Anatomy chapter 18

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phantomr254
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274725
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Anatomy chapter 18
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2014-05-18 17:19:08
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anatomy
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anatomy chapter 18
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  1. 4 Types of communication
    • 1. Direct
    • 2. Paracrine
    • 3. Endocrine 
    • 4. synaptic
  2. 3 types of hormones and example
    • 1. amino acid derivatives (epinephrine) 
    • 2. Peptide hormones (oxytocin) 
    • 3. Lipid derivatives (steroid, estrogen)
  3. Hormone functions
    • 1. Stimulate function of an enzyme or structural protein 
    • 2. turn an enzyme on or off by changing its shape or structure 
    • 3. Increases or decrease the rate of synthesis of a particular enzyme of other protein
  4. 8 Steps for short answer
    Hypothalamus produces- TRH anterior - TSH - thyroid- thyroid follicle- thyroglobulin- thyroxin T4
  5. Hormones of the anterior
    • TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) 
    • ACTH
    • Gonadotrophins 
    • FSH
    • LH
    • Prolactin
    • GH
    • MSH
  6. TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
    Release of thyroid hormone
  7. ACTH a
    • Causes the release of corticotropin from the adrenal gland 
    • stimulates release of steroid hormones
  8. Gonadotropins
    Activates the gonads (sex cell production)
  9. FSH
    stimulate the secretion of estrogen
  10. LH
    • induces ovulation
    • Helps secreation of hormone which prepares the body for possible pregnancy
  11. Prolactin
    stimulates development of mammary glands
  12. GH
    stimulates cell growth and replication by acceleration the rate of protein synthesis
  13. MSH
    • stimulates the melanocytes of the skin 
    • increases production of melanin
  14. Posterior hormones
    • ADH
    • Oxytocin
  15. ADH
    decreases blood pressure by reducing liquid volume
  16. Oxytocin
    stimulates smooth muscle contractions
  17. Thyroid
    found over the anterior surface of the trachea
  18. Thyroid hormones
    • 1. causes and increase of mitochondrial ATP production 
    • 2. Activate genes involved with synthesis of enzymes involved in glycolysis and ATP production
  19. C Cells
    • 1. produce colcitronin 
    • 2. Regulates CA+2 in bodily fluids 
    • 3. inhibit osteoclasts and stimulates the release of Ca +2 from the kidneys
  20. 4 functions of the parathyroid gland
    • 1. stimulate osteoclast 
    • 2. inhibits osteoblasts 
    • 3. teduces excretion of CA+2 in urine 
    • 4. Stimulates the formation and secretion of calcitrol
  21. cheif cells
    produce parathyroid hormone
  22. thymus
    produces thymosin which promotes the development of lymphocytes
  23. 2 parts of the adrenal gland
    • 1, adrenal cortex 
    • 2, adrenal medulla
  24. 3 zones of adrenal cortex
    • Zon glonerulosa 
    • zone fasciculate 
    • zona reticularis
  25. 3 homones of the the kidneys
    • 1. Calcitrol 
    • 2. Erythorpoietin
    • 3. Renin
  26. 4 major effects of angiostensin 2
    • 1. stimulates production of aldosternone 
    • 2. stimulates the secretion of anterioles 
    • 3. Stimulates thirst 
    • 4. causes the constricion of artierioles
  27. 4 effects of ANP to the heart
    • Promotes the loss of sodium ions and water at the kidneys 
    • inhibits renin releases 
    • suppresses thirst
    • blocks the action of angiotenisn 2 or arterioles
  28. 4 types of pancreas
    • Alpha 
    • Belta rello 
    • Beta 
    • F-cells
  29. 5 functions of isulin
    • 1. accelerates glucose uptake by alll cells 
    • 2. accelerates glucose utilixation and ATP production 
    • 3. stimulates glycogen formation 
    • 4. stimulates amino acid absorption and protein synthesis 
    • 5. stimulates triglycerate formation and adipsoe tissues
  30. 3 functions of glucagon
    • 1. stimulates breakdowns of glycogen in skeletal muscle cells and liver cells 
    • 2. Stimulates triglyceride breakdown in adipose tissues 
    • 3. Stimulates glucose production in the liver
  31. Testes
    testosterone- susten tacular cells produce inhibin ( no FSH)
  32. Ovaries
    estrogen and inhibin- corpus luteum produces progestins and relaxins
  33. SA (secondary messengers)
    • 1. Hormones- the primary messengers that just enter the cell 
    • 2. secondary messengers- attaches to the receptor causing an internal change/ message

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