Poultry Quiz 4

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  1. Types of Cannibalism
    • Toe Picking- pick tissue off of toe
    • Tail Picking- Occurs when molting
    • Vent Picking- Cloaca comes off when laying an egg. It gets picked and causes prolapse
    • Black Pot- eat all or most of chicken
  2. Triggers of Cannibalism
    • Light Intensity
    • Hours of light- have to have dark cycle
    • Genetics
    • Disease
    • External Parasites
    • Juvenile Molts
    • Crowding
    • Nutritional Deficiencies
    • Mixed Age/Specie
    • Peck Order
    • Boredom
    • No Feed
  3. Does lack of water cause cannibalism?
    No it makes them lethargic
  4. Genetic Triggers
    • Fighting Chickens
    • Pheasants
    • Leghorns
  5. External Parasite Triggers
    • Northern Fowl Mites
    • Poultry Lice

    Picking them off causes cannibalism
  6. Nutritional Deficiency Triggers
    • Salt (sodium)
    • Protein
    • Amino Acid
  7. Nutritional Methods of Control
    • More Salt
    • More Protein
    • Balance the amino acids
  8. Anti-Picking Control Apparatus
    • Red Contact Lenses
    • Specs (blinders)
  9. Distractions Method of Control
    • Alfafa Hay
    • Plastic Bottles
    • Beach Balls
    • Baby Toys
  10. Correct Management Problems
    • More space per bird
    • Lower the house temperature
    • Increase the air flow
    • Feed the birds (Fix the feeder)
  11. Methods of Beak Trimming (Beak Conditioning)
    • Laser: done at hatchery 
    • Precision Beak Trimming: 2.25 seconds, 6-7 days old, quick recovery
    • "Nip" Beak Trimming: 7-21 days old, top beak only
    • "Final" Beak Trimming: 6-12 weeks of age, top and bottom (not as common anymore)
  12. Phases of Incubation
    • Setting Phase (Setter): all but last few days, turning device
    • Hatching Phase (Hatcher): last few days, no turning device, higher humidity
  13. 5 Key Factors of Incubation
    • Temperature
    • Relative Humidity
    • Air Exchange
    • Turning
    • Position of the Egg
  14. Time Requirements of Incubation of:
    • Chickens: 21 days
    • Turkeys: 28 days
    • Ducks: 28-35 days
    • Quail: 17 days
  15. Temperature: Optimum Temps
    • Some eggs will hatch 95-104 degrees
    • Forced Draft: 98.6-100.4
    • Still Air: 99.6-101.4
    • Hatching Phase: 98.0
  16. Heating and Cooling Temps
    • Days 1 to 13: Heating
    • Days 14 to 21: Cooling
  17. Humidity Requirement:
    • Setting Phase: 58-61%
    • Hatching Phase: 75%
  18. Methods of Measuring Temperature
    • Percent Relative Humidity
    • Wet Bulb Temperature
  19. Humidity Affects:
    • Weight Loss
    • Chicks ability to get out of shell (necessary for this)
    • Early Hatching (those who hatch early need humidity)
  20. Optimum Level of Oxygen
  21. Optimum Level of Carbon Dioxide
    • 0.5%
    • if it goes too low then the repertory system won't develop
  22. Why do eggs have to be turned?
    To keep the yolk centered
  23. How many times a day does the hen turn the eggs?
    200 times per day
  24. According to research, how many times do the egg have to be turned?
    6-8 times per day
  25. How many times do hatcheries turn their eggs?
    24 times per day
  26. Position of the Egg
    • Large end up= commercial egg industry
    • Laid on its side= when hen lays egg

    Chalaza is there to keep the egg centered when turning
  27. How to find Optimal level of moisture loss:
    Egg Wt. - (chick wt.) - (shell wt.)= moisture loss

    • Should be around 11.5%
    • 9.5%= Mushy chicks
    • 13.5%= Dehydration, Death
  28. Factors Affecting Moisture Loss
    • Egg Shell quality (porosity)
    • Temperature and Humidity During the Storage of Hatching eggs
    • Length of Storage
    • Temperature and Humidity During Incubation
    • Egg Size
  29. Further Processsing
    any processing applied to a dressed poultry carcass following the whole body, ready to cook stage
  30. Gobbler
    A mature male turkey

    (A tom is a male of any age)
  31. Grower
    contract grower, a poultry grower
  32. High Rise House
    • Two story house
    • Cages on top, feces on bottom
  33. Hock
    joint located at the juncture of the fibula
  34. Hover
    a metal hover or canopy which contains and directs the heat generator by the heat source

    Doesn't warm air, but warms surfaces
  35. Hybrid Vigor
    the extra performance shown by the progeny of crosses genetically dissimilar stocks
  36. Integrated
    Business which is engaged in contract production of poultry meat or eggs
  37. Leaker
    egg which has a crack, the contents are exuding or can exude through the shell
  38. Light and Temperature
    Excludes natural daylight and has a system of mechanical ventilation. All lighting is artificial.

    Conventional: use natural light; opposite of LTC & stirring fans
  39. Litter
    • Rice hulls absorbent material. Functions:
    • Absorbs H2O
    • Temperature control
    • Cushion (not bedding)
  40. Loss Egg
    • to be inedible and not suitable for human consumption
    • have adhering material on the shell
    • Cant sell a dirt to a store
  41. Mash
    a from of feed consisting of a mixture of ground ingredients
  42. Meat Spot
    • any particle of foreign material found in the albumen of an egg.
    • Small piece of oviduct
  43. First three things you do in table egg industry
    • Facility (cage, cage free, free range)
    • Schedule
    • Select the right strain
  44. Selection Factors that are controlled by genetics
    • Rate of Lay
    • Mortality
    • Temperature
    • Egg Size
    • Body Weight
    • Feed Consumption
    • Shell Quality
    • Forgiveness
    • Moltability
    • Internal Egg Quality
    • Shell Color
    • Others
  45. Factors Inherent (present) in your company/facility
    • Housing Type
    • Where are the eggs marketed
    • Flock Scheduling
  46. Sex Slip
    Where they make a mistake and send a boy instead of female
  47. Types of Equipment and systems
    • Floor House
    • Cage House - 3x better utilization (no wasted space)
    • Combinations
  48. Feeding Systems
    • Cage: Flat chain and drag auger
    • Floor: flat chain and pan (auger to pan)
  49. Watering Systems
    • Trough (with float control)
    • Cups (with float control)
    • Cups with pressure regulator
    • "Bell" type waterers (valves controlled by weight)
  50. What is the most popular watering system?
    Nipple watering system
  51. Why is nipple watering systems the most popular?
    • No floor space required
    • Ease of drinking (drink more b/c of angle)
    • Stays clean
    • Low water pressure
    • Less labor
    • Less disease/ Use of medications and disinfectants
    • Better feed efficiency
    • Disadvantage: hard to drink for runts
  52. What is used to increase the calcium level and why?
    Oyster shell because it is selective and they wont eat it if they don't need it
  53. Vaccination Programs
    • 3 week spread
    • Minimize combinations
    • Use fresh vaccine (have pull dates)
    • When water vaccinating: the stock solution should be consumed within two hours
    • When water vaccinating use evaporated milk
    • When spray vaccinating use distilled water
  54. Titer
    Fancy word for concentration of the level of antibodies

    Normally on a scale of 0 -> 18
  55. What three diseases are prevalent around the world?
    • Marek's 
    • Gumburo
    • Newcastle Disease
  56. Math questions
Card Set:
Poultry Quiz 4
2014-05-21 00:08:50
ASCI 225

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